Fundamental Journals

  International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences (IJFPS) 

    ISSN : 2231-8186

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for year 2012



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Special Issue 2,July 2013



















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IJFPS, Vol 5, No 2 , June , 2015


A Method to Determine Doublet Photopeak Area (137Cs and 214Bi) in NORM Soil by NaI-detector



Khairi M-S. Abdullah



Due to the poor resolution of (76 mm×76 mm) NaI scintillation detector, ~7.5% for 137Cs peak (661.5 keV), a mutual spectral ‎interferences of environmental samples between 137Cs and 214Bi (609 keV) in the decay series of uranium peaks, is a serious ‎problem. This overlapped problem appears in low level sample spectrum causes overestimation of the specific activity of both ‎nuclides. The main purpose of this work is to resolve this problem and to present a methodology to correct the activity ‎concentrations of 137Cs by NaI(Tl) spectroscopy. In Duhok governorate of Iraq, as a real NORM case, the accumulation of ‎‎137Cs is significant brought by west-north wind and precipitation in the years following nuclear weapons testing and Chernobyl ‎accident in 1986. The developed correlations for any ratio of the measured areas of 214Bi and 137Cs overcome the ‎overestimation and show very good results. The method is approved by comparing the relative error of the measured and ‎corrected activity of Bi with that measured Pb. The maximum, minimum and average relative errors decreased from 40%, ‎‎7.3% and 19.4% to 6.1%, -6.5% and 0.6% respectively.‎

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Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Levels And Radiation Hazard Parameters In The Environment Of Eloor Island, Kerala



Dhanya Balakrishnan, Umadevi A.G, Jose P Abraham, P. J. JoJo, M. Harikumar, Sujata Radhakrishnan‎



Contribution of terrestrial gamma radiation due to the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil ‎constitutes a significant component of background radiation exposure to population. The present study is ‎aimed at measuring the concentration of primordial radionuclides in the soil samples of Eloor Island, ‎‎(Udyogamandal) and evaluating the radiation exposure to the local population. Eloor Island is an industrial ‎area in Ernakulum District with about 250 industrial units of different kinds, in about 14.21 sq km, including ‎fertilizers, insecticides, zinc, petro-chemicals and rare-earths. The ambient radiation exposure rate was ‎measured using potable scintillometer survey meter. Soil samples were collected from 125 locations in the ‎study area. The activity concentration of 232Th, 238U and 40K in the soil samples were analyzed using 5×4” ‎NaI(Tl) gamma spectrometer. The ambient radiation exposure rate measured using portable dosimeter varied ‎from 63 nGy/h-1 to 374 nGy/h-1. The activity concentration of 232Th, 238U and 40K in soil samples ranges ‎from 44.8 Bq kg-1 to 792.8 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, 8 Bq kg-1 to 445.5 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 129 Bq kg-1 to 1160.5 ‎Bq kg-1 for 40K. The mean activity concentrations of measured radionuclides were compared with other ‎literature values. The natural radioactivity in some locations of the study area showed higher values as ‎compared to levels from national and international references and this may be due to either phosphogypsum ‎landfills done earlier or natural presence of monazite patches. The findings of the study showed no ‎significant impact due to the NORM Industries in the Eloor Industrial region. ‎

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Inertial Forces and the Laws of Dynamics



Alexander V. Emelyanov



The basic concepts and laws of classical dynamics are analyzed from the standpoint of their adequacy to the physical nature ‎of material bodies and to the dynamical processes. What Newton called absolute immovable space is the world ether that ‎generates any forces, including the inertial forces imposing constraints on the magnitude of the acceleration. Inertial reference ‎frames are frames moving translationally, rectilinearly, and uniformly relative to the ether. The physical nature of the ‎principle of relativity is that the acceleration of a material point in all inertial reference frames coincides with its acceleration ‎relative to the ether, and, therefore, Newton's dynamical equation retains the same form in any inertial reference frame. The ‎principle of relativity is valid as long as Newton's dynamical equation is valid. In new formulations, the four laws of dynamics ‎contain the concepts of ether and inertial forces. These laws are independent between themselves, and each of them expresses ‎only one elementary truth.‎

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External Gamma Dose Levels In The Soil Samples Of HBRAs Of Kerala And Tamil Nadu, India



Reeba Maria Jose, Ben Byju S, Anilkumar S, M P Chougaonkar



The environmental background radiation varies from place to place due to the change in concentration of naturally occurring ‎radioisotopes like 40K, decay products of radio-series of 238 U and 232 Th in the earth crust. Knowledge on the distribution of ‎these radionuclides in soil and rock is of great important for radiation protection and measurement. A systematic radiological ‎survey has been carried out in the region of high-background radiation area in Kollam district of Kerala and Manavalakurichi ‎in Tamilnadu in India to compare the natural gamma-radiation levels. 175 soil samples from high-background radiation areas ‎and 5 samples from normal background region were collected as per standard sampling procedures and were analyzed for ‎‎238U, 232Th and 40K by NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometry. External gamma dose rates at all sampling locations were also ‎measured using a GM tube based survey meter. Heterogeneous distribution of radionuclides in the region may be attributed to ‎the deposition phenomenon of soil in the region. The result of gamma dose rate measured at the sampling sites using survey ‎meter showed an excellent correlation with dose rates computed from the natural radionuclides estimated from the soil ‎samples. From these radioactivity levels, the radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index which resulted from the ‎natural radionuclides in sediments are also tabulated for the analysed samples and compared with internationally ‎recommended values.‎

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