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  International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences (IJFPS) 

    ISSN : 2231-8186

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IJFPS, Vol 5, No 3, Sept , 2015

Special Relativity in a Universe of Flowing Time



Ted Dace



By eliminating the need for an absolute frame of reference or ether, Einstein resolved the problem of the constancy of light-speed in all inertial frames but created a new problem in our understanding of time. The resolution of this problem requires no experimentation but only a careful analysis of special relativity, in particular the relativity of simultaneity. This concept is insufficiently relativistic insofar as Einstein failed to recognize that any given set of events privileges the frame in which the events occur; relative to those events, only the privileged frame yields the correct measurement. Instead of equally valid frames occupying different times, one frame is correct and all others incorrect within a shared present moment. I conclude that (1) time is a succession of universal moments and (2) in the context of flowing time, time dilation requires absolute simultaneity, whereas relative simultaneity predicts a nonexistent phenomenon here dubbed time regression.

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Examine the Evolution of Columned Halls of the Second and First Millenniums B.C in Iran, Caucasus and Anatolia



Sanaz Safari ,  Farshid Iravani Ghadim



Among the major changes that occurred in the context of architecture in iron age can mention the construction of columned halls in the ancient East. with the goal of understanding the structure technique and style of columned halls in Iran, Anatolia and the Caucasus between second and first millennium BC , the utilization of columned halls and also the study of influence of columned halls in Iran, Anatolia and Caucasus was researched in the second and first millennium BC. The results of  this study, show to the evolution and trends columned halls of the during the second and first millennium BC, also These buildings were used initially for religious and ritual ceremonies, but gradually with the formation of the Apadana pattern, their usage has changed and utilized as a reception and ceremonial hall.

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Lead Poisoning and Measurement of Body Burdens of Lead: A Perspective



Eman Daara , D A Bradley



The measurement of lead in archaeological bone forms the basis for providing insight into ancient societies, including disease, lifestyle and eating habits. It is sometimes asserted that in the 5th century AD lead toxicity played a key role in the eventual fall of the western Roman Empire. Others view the effect of lead exposure at that time to be less significant. The debate concerns the idea that clinical lead poisoning mainly affected the aristocratic population and caused a strong reduction in fertility and reproduction. Choosing bone over soft tissues or blood for lead measurement is due to the fact that the bone represents a long-term store of a range of elements, including lead, and can survive over many thousands of years. Different elemental analysis techniques both in-vivo and in-vitro have been developed over the years, including X-ray fluorescence (XRF), the latter being the main technique described within this review. The main advantages of in-vitro techniques are that they have excellent detection limits and data processing times but on the down side they are very expensive. On the other hand, while in-vivo techniques are non-invasive they suffer from relatively poor detection limits, pointing to the need for validation using in-vitro analysis.

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Transportation in North East of the Iranian Plateau in Bronze Age



Hamed Tahmasebi Zave ,  Farshid Iravani Ghadim  ,  Morteza Hessari




The Iranian Plateau is situated in a special geographical location and because of that it has always been a bridge between east and west during its long historical period. In the midst, north east of Iran has been of crucial importance compared to other areas due to important routes crossing it such as the Great Khorasan Road which is the communicative agent of Central Asia with the Iranian Plateau and Mesopotamia Plateau, and its splits which connect south Turkmenistan settlements to south east of Iran. From the perspective of archaeologists, the expansion of regional and trans-regional trade exchanges is an evidence of Bronze Age in Iran. It is impossible to regularly make business and communicative contacts without sufficient means of transportation, especially goods and material trading. Boats and ships in maritime trade and draft and resistive animals in land trade are of crucial importance‏.‏ Chariots and wheeled vehicles were important transportation means in Bronze Age drawn by domestic animals. Wheeled chariots became prevalent in north east of Iran in order to increase the volume of transported goods by commercial trailers and accelerate their movement and with the increasing trade volume, four-wheeled chariots replaced two-wheeled ones over time. At first they were drawn by cow power, but then animals like camels and equids ‎‎(donkeys, asses and horses) replaced cows to accelerate the transportation. Considering the importance of adequate and appropriate means of transporting goods and trade materials in one hand, and the strategic and special role of the north east of the Iranian Plateau on the other hand, this paper attempts to study and recognize transportation means used in this area in Bronze Age, using archaeological documents and data.

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A Model to Predict Speed Rates in Weaving Sections (Case Study: Tehran Principal Arterials)



Mona Mosallanejad,  Masoume Soltan Mohammadi



Due to a strong need for lane changing, in weaving sections a type of turbulence creates a traffic flow and as a result the speed and the capacity of the weaving section decreases. Therefore, investigation of in this regard seems to be very essential. However, because of the lack of manual control for urban principal arterials, calibration of these models is necessary as well. One of these models that are used to evaluate the level of the weaving sections service is Speed Rates Model which will be elaborated in this paper. The required data have been collected in nine Tehran principal arterials. Then, two models for prediction of weaving and non-weaving speed rates have been developed. Validations also confirm the accuracy of the developed models. The investigation of weaving speed rates reveals that, speed rates for weaving vehicles reduce by increasing weaving density and rates. Also the research on non-weaving speed model shows the speed rates for non-weaving vehicles reduce by increasing weaving density and lane changing rate. Moreover, comparison of the developed model and HCM 2010 for similar condition reveals that the developed models have the predictability more than that of HCM 2010 model.

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The Role and place of Music Art in the Recognition of Architectural Identity



Elham Azadi , Said Mirriahi



It seems something that a music listener receives is more emotional than rational. However, in this case, if the listener is an architect, interactions and confrontational effects he can receive which are based on architectural point of view, are closer to the feelings of the composer of the piece of music. In this article, the writer is trying to find out what is the place art of music in the art of architecture and to answer conceptual links between architecture and music have been discussed. Moreover, the process has begun with the aim of establishing a connection between music and architecture, with an emphasis on the recognition of unique characteristics of music and its manifestation in architecture. The result is that architecture and music are both abstract arts and the initial feeling in architecture is meeting needs, but music lays its impact at the moment.

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