International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences (IJFPS) <div>ISSN:&nbsp;<span style="color: #ff0000; font-size: small;">2231-8186</span>&nbsp;<br>DOI: <span style="color: #ff0000; font-size: small;">10.14331/ijfps</span></div> Fundamental Journals en-US International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences (IJFPS) 2231-8186 Imaginary Numbers and their Beauty <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper is discussing how and where imaginary numbers came to be and how their extension to our classic number line helped mathematics to grow even faster. We talk about the beginning of imaginary numbers and the set of rules that come with them. We show how an error that occurred in an equation started the discovery of these. These numbers also help us achieve a better perspective towards the parabolas we see every day. In the end, you can see how these new numbers found the perfect place on the number line and fit in well with different categories we all know.</p> Misha Nikouravan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-06 2019-03-06 9 1 1 5 Theory of Relativity: The Failure of the Principle of Equivalence <p style="text-align: justify;">In the recent work, we will criticize the mental experiment that A. Einstein proposed, with the name of the principle of equivalence, to justify the validity of his theory in the case in which the reference systems do not move with uniform and rectilinear speed.</p> Enrique Martinez Viladesau ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-06 2019-03-06 9 1 6 8 Palchoudhury Gas Theory and Role of Heat Engine <p style="text-align: justify;">Palchoudhury gas theory is capable of describing the function of a heat engine. We can measure the capacity of a heat engine in two ways. (1) The product of pressure and inner surface area (2) The outcome of the gas constant, number of moles, the outer surface area of gas and temperature.</p> Sankar Palchoudhury ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-06 2019-03-06 9 1 9 12 Effects of Seasonal Change on the Levels of Geogenic Radionuclides in Sand and Rocks from Tyaa River deposit in Kitui County <p style="text-align: justify;">The average activity concentration of <sup>226</sup>Ra, <sup>232</sup>Th and <sup>40</sup>K in rock samples during the rainy season was 22±1.1 BqKg<sup>-1</sup>, 46±2.3 BqKg<sup>-1,</sup> and 659±33 BqKg<sup>-1</sup> respectively, while in the sand was 27±1.4 BqKg<sup>-1</sup>, 49±2.5 BqKg<sup>-1</sup>and 824±41 BqKg<sup>-1</sup> for <sup>226</sup>Ra, <sup>232</sup>Th and <sup>40</sup>K respectively.&nbsp; A repeat study during dry season reported higher activities for <sup>226</sup>Ra, <sup>232</sup>Th, and <sup>40</sup>K for most samples. The corresponding dose rates and radiological indices estimated from specific activities of <sup>226</sup>Ra, <sup>232</sup>Th and <sup>40</sup>K showed an upward trend as seasons changed from rainy to dry. Both seasons reported radiation doses below the permissible limits.</p> S. M. Matsitsi J. M. Linturi J.M. Kebwaro O. M. Maweu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-06 2019-03-06 9 1 13 16 A Comparison of the Influential Factors Creating Conflicts Between Cities and Its Annexed Village <p style="text-align: justify;">Considering the lack of consistency in these urban and rural areas in relation to several factors such as social, economic, cultural, physical and administrative, the amalgamation of the rural areas into urban areas leads to numerous problems. Therefore this paper tries to individually examine the role of each of the abovementioned factors in amalgamation of village areas into city districts. This research uses analytic method and documentary research including extensive field observation, and questionnaires which were completed by 220 households and it highlights that even though there are not significant social and managerial differences between Islamshahr city and Shatereh village, when considering cultural, economic and physical factors in these areas the difference is substantial thus, the results indicates that these differences are the consequence of the amalgamation of the villages into the cities.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><a href=""></a></p> Naghmeh MohammadPourlima Ali NooriKermani Ali Akbar Rezaei ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-28 2019-01-28 9 1 5 8 10.14331/ijfps.2013.330044 Innovative extracting of optimum operational diagrams for a CW sealed CO2 laser based on the evolutionary genetic algorithm <blockquote> <p style="text-align: justify;"><sub><img title="free website hit counter" src=";id=121001&amp;s=16" border="0"></sub>&nbsp;&nbsp;<small></small><strong>Views&nbsp; </strong></p> <p>Some innovative diagram for the optimum parameters in operation of a sealed CW CO<sub>2</sub> laser was extracted by using the evolutionary genetic algorithm. By picking up an optimum value for the cavity stability parameter, geometrical factor (g), the optimum value of other parameters such as tube diameter, tube length and the coupler transmission, are resulted by these optimum&nbsp; diagrams.</p> </blockquote> Saeid Behrouzinia Majid Aram Pedram Mohamadizadeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-29 2018-12-29 9 1 96 98 10.14331/ijfps.2018.330120