https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/issue/feed International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences 2021-04-16T20:33:39+00:00 Ko. Nakajima (中島) info@fundamentaljournals.org Open Journal Systems <p><a title=" International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science" href="https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/index" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong><img src="https://www.fundamentaljournals.org/public/site/images/admin/96749653-3310442022301960-7899194878892965888-o.png" alt="" width="1499" height="351" /></strong></a></p> <p><strong>ISSN: 2231-8186 </strong><br /><strong>DOI: 10.14331/ijfps</strong><br /><strong>Aims and Scope</strong><br />International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences (IJFPS) or (Int. J. Fundam. Phys. Sci) is an International Open Access Journal with OJS (Open Journal Systems) publishing quarterly and covering all parts of Sciences in Mathematics, Theoretical &amp; Experimental Physics, Astronomy, Astrophysics, Chemistry, Geology, Computer Sciences, Civil, GIS, IT and etc.</p> https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/141 On The Schottky Barrier Height Lowering Effect of Ti3SiC2 in Ohmic Contacts to P-Type 4H-SiC 2021-04-16T20:33:39+00:00 C. A. Fisher Craig.A.Fisher@warwick.ac.uk M. R. Jennings Craig.A.Fisher@warwick.ac.uk Y. K. Sharma Craig.A.Fisher@warwick.ac.uk A. Sanchez-Fuentes Craig.A.Fisher@warwick.ac.uk D. Walker Craig.A.Fisher@warwick.ac.uk P. M. Gammon Craig.A.Fisher@warwick.ac.uk A. Pérez-Tomás Craig.A.Fisher@warwick.ac.uk S. M. Thomas Craig.A.Fisher@warwick.ac.uk S. E. Burrows Craig.A.Fisher@warwick.ac.uk P. A. Mawby Craig.A.Fisher@warwick.ac.uk <p>In this paper, an experimental investigation into titanium (Ti) / aluminium (Al)-based ohmic contacts to p-type 4H-silicon carbide (SiC) has been presented. Electrical characterisation of the fabricated contacts showed that metal structures with an initial Ti layer yielded the lowest specific contact resistance (ρ<sub>c</sub>), with a mean value of 3.7×10<sup>-5</sup> Ω-cm<sup>2</sup> being achieved after annealing in argon (Ar) at 1000°C for 2 minutes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis illustrated the epitaxial relationship between the 4H-SiC and the as-deposited Ti layer, and, in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, showed that after annealing a ~5 nm thick layer of Ti<sub>3</sub>SiC<sub>2</sub> was present, epitaxially arranged with the 4H-SiC. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the presence of the Ti<sub>3</sub>SiC<sub>2</sub> metallic phase was more prevalent in the samples with Ti as the initial metal layer annealed at 1000°C, which corresponded with lower specific contact resistance. Fitting of experimental data to a thermionic field emission (TFE) model allowed the Schottky barrier height to be extracted; it was found that the lowest Schottky barrier heights were more prevalent where the most intense Ti<sub>3</sub>SiC<sub>2</sub> phases were observed during XRD analysis.</p> 2014-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2014 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/140 Giant Magnetoresistance and Oscillations In Interlayer Exchange Coupling In Co/Cu/Co Multi-Layers 2021-04-16T20:23:20+00:00 Haji Shirinzadeh h_szadeh@merc.ac.ir <p>The oscillations in interlayer exchange coupling between ferromagnetic layers which are Separated by a nonmagnetic spacer layer, manifests n oscillatory magnetic properties which depend on the thickness of Copper interlayer. Using Molecular Beam Epitaxy system. We have made multilayer films with alternating cobalt and copper thin films. The preliminary results are reported on microstructure and magnetization properties. The conductance between first and third film depends on the relative orientation of magnetization between them. This optimizes to large magneto resistance changes called Giant Magneto-resistance effect.</p> 2014-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2014 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/139 Calculation of The Deposited Energy and Stopping Range For The Proton, Deuteron and Carbon Beams In Laser Fusion by Fast Ignition 2021-04-16T20:10:04+00:00 S.N. Hoseinimotlagh hoseinimotlagh@hotmail.com M. Zareie hoseinimotlagh@hotmail.com <p>The main goal of this paper is calculation of deposited energy and as a result evaluation of stopping range of the ionic beams of carbon, deuteron and proton. The deposited energy is the function of two parameters: (a) beam energy and (b) electron temperature. Also the stopping range depends on the temperature, ionic beam energy and density of fuel pellet. Our calculations show that with decreasing the stopping range of particle, the deposited energy is enhanced. In the same temperature and fuel density, carbon has less stopping range and more deposited energy but higher energy is needed to accelerate the beam , this causes carbon has less energy than others. However, deuteron has more stopping range and deposited energy in comparison with carbon also it has better beam gain in comparison with carbon. Stopping range and proton beam gain respect to the other fuels is placed in lower level , but the low threshold intensity to accelerate it, cause it obtain the high gain. The optimum beam gain of the proton is 150 while it is 75 for deuteron and 1 for carbon. The fuel geometry must be considered for more studies in order to increase the beam gain.</p> 2014-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2014 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/138 The Electromagnetic Radiation Mechanism 2021-04-16T19:57:01+00:00 Mahmoud E. Yousif yousif_474@yahoo.com <p>This paper suggested a mechanism for Electromagnetic Radiation (EM-R); the mechanism is based on the Flip-Flop (F-F) of combined Circular Magnetic Field (CMF) and Electric Field (EF) produced by energetic charged particles, the action released the EM-R; while as the F-F generates EM-R, it is also achieved within specific Flipping Time (<em>t</em><sub>F</sub>), the inverse of which is the Flipping Frequency (<em>f</em><sub>F</sub>), the model is compared with Maxwell’s two transformations to elaborate differences and characteristics, hence when EM-R is better understood, that will reflect on the physical world and related human ideas and philosophies.</p> 2014-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2014 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/137 Features of Loschmidt's Number and Its Theoretical Frontiers 2021-04-16T19:33:40+00:00 M.E. Zhussupov mjalmata@mail.ru <p style="text-align: justify;">Loschmidt's number has played an important role in the development of science and technology and in the establishment of various standards. However, despite advances in the technological methods of estimating Loschmidt's number, the nature of its formation remains unknown. The information that lies in the nature of this constant can be useful for understanding the properties of a physical vacuum and the character of processes of the interaction of matter in this environment. Basing on time and experiment-tested the laws of molecular physics and thermodynamics, some features of the host medium of micro-particles involved in the formation of Loschmidt’s number were identified, describing its nature and the previously unknown phenomena of fundamental pressure of a Universe. The characteristics of various physical and chemical processes occurring in systems associated with a vacuum and the behavior of heavenly bodies are considered from the perspective of this phenomenon’s existence.</p> 2014-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2014 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/136 Radiological Analysis of Suitability of Kitui South Limestone for use as Building Material 2021-04-15T20:57:34+00:00 Bendibbie Munyao Mulwa bmulwa1@gmail.com David Muchori Maina bmulwa1@gmail.com Jayanti Pushotami Patel bmulwa1@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">Indoor exposure arises from the soils from which the building stands and the building materials used for construction. This is because all building materials contain certain levels of natural radionuclides <sup>238</sup>U, <sup>232</sup>Th, and <sup>40</sup>K. Limestone is the most commonly used building material in Kenya due to its availability and low cost. The limestone from Kitui South has not been mined to process for use but limestone mining and processing plants were being set by the time of this study. This study therefore aimed at evaluating the suitability of the limestone for use as a building material before its mining and processing begin. The activity concentrations of the limestone samples were determined and the radium equivalent, external hazard index, gamma activity index and alpha index evaluated. The results showed that the radium equivalent activity for all the samples was below the recommended limit of 370Bqkg<sup>-1</sup> and all the radiation hazard indices were below a unit. Therefore, the limestone can be used as building material or for manufacture of building materials without any restrictions.</p> 2013-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2013 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/135 Spectral Analysis of Aeromagnetic Data over Part of the Southern Bida basin, West-Central Nigeria 2021-04-15T20:38:03+00:00 Ikumbur Emmanuel Bemsen ibemsen@gmail.com Onwuemesi Ajana Godwin ibemsen@gmail.com Anakwuba Emmanuel Kenechukwu ibemsen@gmail.com Chinwuko Augustine Ifeanyi ibemsen@gmail.com Usman Ayatu Ojonugwa ibemsen@gmail.com Okonkwo Churchill Chukwunonso ibemsen@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">Qualitative and quantitative interpretations of aeromagnetic map over part of the Southern Bida Basin, West-Central Nigeria have carried out using spectral analysis. The aeromagnetic maps digitized along flight lines of 2km interval. The qualitative interpretation of the magnetic anomaly and first vertical derivative maps revealed that the area is intensely faulted with major faults trending East-West (E-W) and minor ones Northeast-Southwest (NE-SW) directions. The result obtained using the spectral method reveals two depth sources in the area, the deeper sources range from 2.81 to 3.24km, while the shallower sources range from 0.45 to 1.49km.The result also shows a linear depression with sedimentary accumulation trending E-W. The average sedimentary thickness in the region is about 2.90km.</p> 2013-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2013 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/134 Design of A Femtosecond Blue Pulse Generation System By Pumping Of Kn Crystal With Cr:LiSAF Lasers 2021-04-15T20:20:29+00:00 Hosein Karami hossain51@yahoo.com Mohammad Taghi Soltanifard hossain51@yahoo.com Reza Aghbolaghi hossain51@yahoo.com <p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="fontstyle0">In this paper, we described and simulated the generation of the blue pulse (460nm) by nonlinear KN(KNbO3) crystal , that pumped by femtosecond diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF lasers. Our simulation shows that, by focusing on laser oscillator output pulses with characteristics such as 860nm wavelength, 200fs,330MHz repetition rate 14o Pico joule( PJ) energy in KN crystal with 3mm length at 22 0C by 15 mm lens in less than 20-micrometer spot size with single-pass produce pulses with 42pJ energy,425fs, 30% optical efficiency and 1% total efficiency.</span> </p> 2013-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2013 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/133 Theoretical Review of Solar Radio Burst III (SRBT III) Associated With of Solar Flare Phenomena 2021-04-15T19:34:57+00:00 Z.S. Hamidi zetysharizat@siswa.um.edu.my Ungku Ferwani Salwa Ungku Ibrahim zetysharizat@siswa.um.edu.my Z.Z Abidin zetysharizat@siswa.um.edu.my Z.A Ibrahim zetysharizat@siswa.um.edu.my N.N.M. Shariff zetysharizat@siswa.um.edu.my <p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="fontstyle0">This article broadly reviews our knowledge of theoretical solar radio burst type III (SRBT III) in the low-frequency region. The eruption mechanism of solar flares and type III are currently an extremely active area of research especially during the solar cycle is towards maximum. There is a particular focus on their physical properties, as opposed to microphysics such as that needed for the evolution and formation of this burst or particle acceleration as such. In this work, we summarize the related theory, model, significant parameters and relate it with the behavior of the burst in low range frequency. Although this is only a combination of all significant literature, it is hoped that it will give some idea on how to understand in detail on this burst.</span> </p> 2013-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2013 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/132 Equilibrium of Planets in The Solar System-A New Approach 2021-04-08T01:36:44+00:00 D. P. Sheth fundamentaljournals@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">As per Newtonian laws of motion and gravitation, the gravitational force of attraction governs all the planets of the solar system. Here we discuss the equilibrium of planets in which gravitational force represents one side and the magnetic hold the other side. The planet achieves equilibrium in the solar field at that point where it's centrifugal (i.e., gravitational) force balances the magnetic hold of the sun. The sun develops magnetic flux on the planet according to its surface area, magnetic content, and rotational velocity.&nbsp; As per available data, calculations in this regard are in good agreement with the functions achieving rotational and orbital motions and equilibrium of planet, thus supporting our concept. Therefore, this theory provides the missing link explaining magnetic interaction with the centrifugal force of the planet to achieve equilibrium, hold, and motion.</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/131 About Black Holes 2021-03-26T00:57:25+00:00 Sankar Palchoudhury sankarpalchoudhury@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">All kinds of waves occur for the disturbances in the quiet gravitational field. Different waves powered differently and propagated in the gravitational field. A black hole is the higher GFI (Gravitational Field Intensity) area. The rays do not possess, coming from a distant source when pass by the black holes, adequate strength to disturb in the higher GFI area of the black holes. Naturally, the rays take on a curve path as the provision in a circular area depends on the radius (distance), keeping distance according to the lower GFI area around the black holes’ center.</p> 2021-03-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/130 Einstein’s Misunderstanding of Time in the Time-Invariant Universe 2021-03-26T00:32:00+00:00 Amrit S. Šorli sorli.bijective.physics@gmail.com Štefan Čelan stefan.celan@bistra.si <p style="text-align: justify;">Einstein has kept time as the dimension of the space-time continuum that is supposed to be a fundamental arena of the universe. Our research confirms time is the duration of changes, i.e., motion run in the time-invariant universal space that has Euclidean shape, it is infinite. Black holes in the center of galaxies are rejuvenating systems of the universe. In these black holes old matter is transforming back into the fresh energy of elementary that AGNs are throwing in the intergalactic space in the form of huge jests. These jets are fresh material for new star formation. The universal process of continuous rejuvenation is eternal.</p> 2021-03-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/129 The SOMETHINGS ABOUT BLACK HOLES 2021-02-26T15:26:19+00:00 Sankar Palchoudhury sankarpalchoudhury@gmail.com <p>All kinds of wave occur for the disturbance in the quiet gravitational field. Different waves powered differently and propagate in the gravitational field. Black hole is the higher GFI area. The rays do not possess, coming from distant source when pass by the black holes, adequate strength to make a disturbance in the higher GFI area of the black holes. Naturally, the rays take on a curve path in a circular way, keeping distance according require lower GFI area around the centre of black holes.</p> Copyright (c) https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/127 The Earth and Cosmic Harmonic Factor 2021-01-28T00:20:03+00:00 Elsiddieg Mohamed Ali Elamin sidig@hotmail.com <p>We investigate the relation between Earth’s distances and other components of the universe. To obtain this relationship we supposed the distance between the earth and other celestial objects follows a constant value of 1.466 with a simple equation which is called, Harmonic Factor. To prove this idea, we find out the distance of celestial objects such as the moon, sun, galaxies, Local cluster, Supercluster, and Group of superclusters in terms of Earth radius with good accuracy. Moreover, we predict a new position for an unknown object or a group of objects, which have not found yet. The results for nearest distance values are very close with real and known values and for farthest objects, need more information in the future.</p> 2013-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2013 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/126 A Survey on the Effects of Rural Guide-Plan of Lajim Village on its Development 2021-01-28T00:09:14+00:00 Alireza Gharakhani alireza_gharakhany@yahoo.com Saed Farajnejad ghadi alireza_gharakhany@yahoo.com Hoseinali Jamshidi alireza_gharakhany@yahoo.com <p style="text-align: justify;">The purpose of this study is to consider, how Lajim Rural guide-plan has affected its textural, economic, social, and cultural development. The theoretical modeling of the study is in accordance with the present guide plans of the country and the previous studies done. In this study which is based on visiting and observing, the research has used a questionnaire to gather data. The sample of the study is households of Lajim village in Mazandaran province; from which 40 people were randomly selected. In this study, four hypotheses considered and data analysis has been presented descriptively and inductively. Statistical methods and independence model, applied for more analyzing. The results show that the guide-plan of Lajim, positively affected Lajim's development economically, culturally, and also socially. The authors provide some suggestions to improve rural guide-plans.</p> 2013-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2013 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/125 Identification of Night-Time F- Region Currents from CHAMP Satellite Observations over Equatorial Africa 2021-01-27T23:50:25+00:00 Adero Awuor Ochieng aderoconstant@gmail.com Paul Baki aderoconstant@gmail.com Peter Kotze aderoconstant@gmail.com Collins Mito aderoconstant@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">The F-region currents are generally weak and difficult to detect. However, their contributions to the earth’s magnetic field variations are significant and cannot be ignored by the field modelers. CHAMP satellite has therefore provided a perfect opportunity to investigate the in-situ F-region currents on the night side of the equatorial region. The magnitudes of the current along all the three components of the earth’s magnetic field (X, Y, Z) are investigated. However, in this paper, we present only the results on the Y-component where interesting magnetic residuals were observed. The X and Z-components were rather masked in much noise and would require further filtering. The currents appear in both the pre-midnight and post-midnight sectors and are spatially confined to the equatorial region bounded by the Appleton anomaly. The magnetic residuals are generally observed in the northern hemisphere of an order of 0.8nT, which gives a height-integrated current density of about 1.3mA/m.</p> 2013-03-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2013 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/124 Einstein’s misunderstanding of time in time-invariant universe 2021-01-31T06:25:59+00:00 Amrit Šorli sorli.amrit@gmail.com Štefan Čelan stefan.celan@bistra.si <p>Einstein has kept time as the dimension of the space-time continuum that is supposed to be a fundamental arena of the universe. Our research confirms time is the duration of changes, i.e., motion run in the time-invariant universal space that has Euclidean shape, it is infinite. Black holes in the centre of galaxies are rejuvenating systems of the universe. In these black holes old matter is transforming back into the fresh energy of elementary that AGNs are throwing in the intergalactic space in the form of huge jests. These jets are fresh material for new star formation. The universal process of continuous rejuvenation is eternal.</p> 2021-03-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/123 A comparison of the influential factors creating conflicts between cities and its annexed village (Case study: Islamshahr and Shatereh) 2021-01-11T22:18:29+00:00 Naghmeh MohammadPourlima n.mohammadpourlima@gmail.com Ali NooriKermani n.mohammadpourlima@gmail.com Ali Akbar Rezaei n.mohammadpourlima@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">Considering the lack of consistency in these urban and rural areas in relation to several factors such as social, economic, cultural, physical and administrative, the amalgamation of the rural areas into urban areas leads to numerous problems. Therefore this paper tries to individually examine the role of each of the abovementioned factors in amalgamation of village areas into city districts. This research uses analytic method and documentary research including extensive field observation, and questionnaires which were completed by 220 households and it highlights that even though there are not significant social and managerial differences between Islamshahr city and Shatereh village, when considering cultural, economic and physical factors in these areas the difference is substantial thus, the results indicates that these differences are the consequence of the amalgamation of the villages into the cities.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> 2013-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/122 Determination of Escape Speed from de Broglie-Bohm Interpretation 2021-01-11T20:27:45+00:00 Ch’ng Han Siong chng_hs@yahoo.com Shahidan Radiman chng_hs@yahoo.com <p style="text-align: justify;">In this study, we apply the standard quantization procedure to the Newtonian equation to obtain the Schrödinger equation. The wave function is obtained and subsequently the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation is applied to the wave function to yield the formulas for escape speed. It is shown that the usual Newtonian formula for escape speed is purely resulted from taking the asymptotic form of Bessel functions. We then extend our work to hydrogen atom and show that the work done to eject the electron away from proton is in discrete form. The ionization energy for ground state of hydrogen atom from escape kinetic energy method is obtained.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> 2013-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/121 Comparison of Trends in Development of City Structures and Development of Urban Transportation 2021-01-04T01:31:13+00:00 M. Asmus hesamedin@ostad.at J. Kornatowska hesamedin@ostad.at M. Luu hesamedin@ostad.at G. Pechoc hesamedin@ostad.at B. Potakowskyj hesamedin@ostad.at H. Ostad-Ahmad-Ghorabi hesamedin@ostad.at <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper discusses trends in the development of future cities and the emerging new requirements to urban transportation. Trends in urban transportation will be investigated to conclude whether they are coherent with the visions of future cities or are able to fulfill the requirements. Origin and history of cities will be discussed to better understand the current status of city structures before future visions are presented. The same will be done for urban transportation.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> 2012-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science