https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/issue/feed International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences 2022-09-19T00:00:00+00:00 Ko. Nakajima (中島) info@fundamentaljournals.org Open Journal Systems <p><a title=" International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science" href="https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/index" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong><img src="https://www.fundamentaljournals.org/public/site/images/admin/96749653-3310442022301960-7899194878892965888-o.png" alt="" width="1499" height="351" /></strong></a></p> <p><strong>ISSN: 2231-8186 </strong><br /><strong>DOI: 10.14331/ijfps</strong><br /><strong>Aims and Scope</strong><br />International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences (IJFPS) or (Int. J. Fundam. Phys. Sci) is an International Open Access Journal with OJS (Open Journal Systems) publishing quarterly and covering all parts of Sciences in Mathematics, Theoretical &amp; Experimental Physics, Astronomy, Astrophysics, Chemistry, Geology, Computer Sciences, Civil, GIS, IT and etc. </p> <p><a title="Worldcat" href="https://www.worldcat.org/search?q=International+Journal+of+Fundamental+Physical+Sciences+%28IJFPS%29&amp;fq=+%28x0%3Aartchap-+OR+%28x0%3Ajrnl+x4%3Adigital%29+OR+%28x0%3Aarchv+x4%3Adigital%29%29&amp;dblist=638&amp;se=&amp;sd=&amp;fc=yr:_25&amp;qt=show_more_yr%3A&amp;cookie" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Worldcat</a></p> https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/168 A phenomenon in Einstein’s equivalence principle 2022-09-08T13:42:09+00:00 Sennimalai Kalimuthu kaalaamra@gmail.com <p>Albert Einstein assumed the equivalence principle which states that&nbsp;gravitational and inertial forces are of a similar nature and often indistinguishable. Also it asserts the&nbsp;equivalence of inertial mass and gravitational mass. Einstein assumed this for the formulation of his general relativity theory .In this letter, we logically analyse this principle.</p> Copyright (c) https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/167 Femtosecond Spin Dynamics Mechanism In Graphenes: The Bloch NMR-Schrödinger Probe 2022-08-22T00:18:08+00:00 Moses E. Emetere moses.emetere@covenantuniversity.edu.ng Bijan Nikouravan nikou@iauvaramin.ac.ir <p>The mechanism of the femtosecond spin dynamics is still not properly understood. The remodeled Bloch-Schrödinger equation was incorporated into the Hamiltonian. The mechanism of the femtosecond dynamics was investigated under three quantum states. The spin relaxation mechanism operated in a single continuous time scale (&gt;70ps) which was in variance with known postulate. The transient reflectivity was measured to be within an angular range of 18.6o to 90.0o at a pulse range of 1MHz to 6.5 MHz. Beyond the pulse intensity of -2.5, the system elapsed into a quasi-equilibrium state which explains the independence of the magnetic moment on the pulse intensity. Different possibilities of the femtosecond spin dynamics were worked out for future study.</p> 2014-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2014 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/166 Features of the Night-Time F-Region Currents Over Equatorial Africa (August, 2001) 2022-08-21T23:35:17+00:00 Awuor Ochieng Adero aderoconstant@gmail.com Paul Baki aderoconstant@gmail.com Peter Kotze aderoconstant@gmail.com Collins Mito aderoconstant@gmail.com <p>In this paper, we present the features of the equatorial F-region current systems over equatorial Africa during nighttime on 05thAugust, 2001 observed at midnight. The observations have inferred from in situ CHAMP satellite measurements of the vector magnetic field. The magnitudes of the current along all the three magnetic field components of the Earth’s magnetic field varied considerably. The Bx-component recorded a diamagnetic effect of about 8nT, By-component recorded a current density of 5mA/m, and Bz-component reached a value of 3mA/m. The F-region dynamo, gravity dynamo and plasma-pressure gradients are the possible mechanisms for the occurrence of these currents. The signatures confined to the equatorial region bounded by the Appleton anomaly.</p> 2014-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2014 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/165 Mass-wavelength equivalence relation in curved space-time continuum of a black hole and transformation of a black hole to a pseudo white hole. 2022-08-19T14:50:04+00:00 Deepanshu Chouhan rashmichouhan1702@gmail.com <p>Black holes create and emit particles thereby evaporating and losing their mass slowly with time . As it loses its mass, the wavelength of the emitted particles decreases and the energy of the black hole radiation increases. The wavelength of Hawking radiation is related to the curvature of space-time continuum near the event horizon by the equation,</p> <p>λ<sub>HR</sub> = {4πM<sub>B</sub> c<sup>2</sup> (G<sub>uv</sub> +Λg<sub>uv</sub> )}/(3T<sub>uv</sub> )</p> <p>&nbsp;where, λ<sub>HR</sub>&nbsp;is the wavelength of the radiation emitted. As the mass of the black hole tends towards zero the wavelength also decreases proportionally and soon the energy carried away from the black hole by Hawking radiation becomes immense. This energy can be thought to be coming from vacuum energy as the black hole converts virtual particle to real ones as seen by an inertial observer far away from the event horizon. This outwards pressure prevents any object to fall beyond the event horizon and it starts behaving as a white hole instead. This is a pseudo white hole as it has positive curvature unlike the white hole predicted by Einstein field equations that has negative curvature.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/164 On Maxwell’s Reversed Laws as Root of Magnetic Monopoles in Dark Matter 2022-08-19T14:32:51+00:00 Russell Bagdoo rbagdoo@gmail.com <p>We propose the magnetic sterile neutrino as a possible candidate for dark matter. We bring the idea that dark matter would be made up of substances originating from black holes, in particular sterile neutrinos associated with a magnetic charge. These would not be sensitive only to the gravitational force. First, we conjectured that when baryonic matter crosses the black holes event horizon, Maxwell's laws are reversed, the electric charge turns into a magnetic charge<span style="text-decoration: line-through;">.</span> Sterile magnetic neutrinos and antineutrinos would be created and emitted, true magnetic monopoles. Second, we discuss dark matter consisting of sterile magnetic neutrinos, the cosmic microwave background, mini primordial black holes, and the formation of intermediate mass black holes linked to the formation of galaxies. Third, we review different mechanisms of how sterile magnetic neutrino could have escaped from the black hole. Fourth, we investigate the possibility that ordinary neutrinos could be produced by the weak interaction if sterile magnetic dark matter neutrinos interact with active ordinary matter neutrinos. Fifth, after examining equations of possible production of gamma rays from the annihilation of neutrinos-antineutrinos, we propose the “anapole”, which would be weakly sensitive to electromagnetic forces. Before concluding, we underline the relation between the distribution of the magnetic fields coming from baryonic matter and that from dark matter, and we highlight the gamma ray glows in the dark that can be attributed to the annihilation of dark matter with itself.</p> 2022-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/162 A Mechanism of Energy Conversion Process 2022-08-03T08:51:15+00:00 Goutam Kumar Kundu gkkundu68@gmail.com Ananya Kundu ananyakundu98@gmail.com Aditya Kundu adityakundu02@gmail.com <p>A closed system has different quantized level of Energy states. It can absorb energy depending on surrounding and its available quantized energy level. On absorption of energy the mass of the system increases as per Einstein’s mass energy relationship that is energy absorbed into system gets converted into mass. The system at higher energy state, having higher mass tends to come into available lower energy state depending on its surrounding, thereby releasing its energy in another form. During releasing energy mass of the closed system gets reduced. Depending on the frequency of absorbed energy and emitted energy, energy of one form gets converted into another form.</p> Copyright (c) https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/161 QCD QED Potentials, Quark Confinement 2022-07-23T06:49:31+00:00 Eue-Jin Jeong euejinjeong@utexas.edu <p>One of the enduring puzzles in high energy particle physics is why quarks do not exist independently ‎despite their existence inside the hadron as quarks have never been found in isolation. This problem may ‎be solved by formulating a QCD potential for the entire range of interaction distances of the quarks. The ‎mystery could be related to the fundamental origin of the mass of elementary particles despite the success ‎of the quantum field theories to the highest level of accuracy. The renormalization program is an essential ‎part of the calculation of the scattering amplitudes, where the infinities of the calculated masses of the ‎elementary particles are subtracted for the progressive calculation of the higher-order perturbative terms. ‎The mathematical structure of the mass term from quantum field theories expressed in the form of infinities ‎suggests that there may exist a finite dynamical mass in the limit when the input mass parameter ‎approaches zero. The Lagrangian recovers symmetry at the same time as the input mass becomes zero, ‎whereas the self-energy diagrams acquire a finite dynamical mass in the 4-dimensional space when the ‎dimensional regularization method of renormalization is utilized. We report a new finding that using the ‎mathematical expression of the self-energy(mass) for photons and gluons calculated from this method, the ‎complex form of the QCD and QED interaction potentials can be obtained by replacing the fixed ‎interaction mediating particle’s mass and coupling constants in Yukawa potential with the scale-‎dependent running coupling constant and the corresponding dynamical mass. The derived QCD QED ‎potentials predict the behavior of the related elementary particles exactly as verified by experimental ‎observation.‎</p> 2022-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/160 Re-examination of Energy Conservation Principle ‎in ‎Charged Capacitors and the Reported ‎Anomalous Energy ‎Devices 2022-06-06T10:01:00+00:00 Eue Jin Jeong euejinjeong@utexas.edu <p>Energy conservation is one of the most fundamental and well-established principles of physics. E. Noether ‎extended the energy conservation principle to the quantum field theoretical domain in empty space by ‎relating the time-translation invariance of the universe with energy conservation. While this is the case in ‎an open empty space, it seems that the local space enclosed by conducting metallic plates has an ‎unexpected property, suggesting that the energy conservation principle may not necessarily apply to ‎localized bound systems of capacitors in electrodynamics. This point of view was raised by noting that the ‎spherical capacitor has calculable electrostatic self-potential energy in both the inner and outer shells, ‎which is not considered in the conventional consideration of the total energy stored in the capacitors. It ‎seems that the concept of moving charges one by one into the capacitor plates has helped bypass the ‎necessary steps to account for the additional repulsive self-potential energy that accumulates ‎simultaneously in both capacitor plates in the process of charging the capacitor. We present itemized ‎details of the repulsive potential energy stored in the capacitors and discuss its physical reality in relation to ‎the anomalous energy devices reported in the past.‎</p> 2022-06-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/159 The Reality of Imaginary Numbers 2022-06-06T08:57:35+00:00 Keith J. Pelletier‎ KeithPell12@yahoo.com <p>As we know, imaginary numbers are square roots of a negative numbers. In this paper, imaginary numbers will be further defined.‎ Every number has a sign to it. A number can either be a positive or a negative, however zero is ‎neither positive nor negative. The number zero is what can be referred to as a neutral number since it does not have any plus or minus signs. In reality, the ‎sign of zero is neutral which is both positive and negative at the same time . The square root of a positive one is both a positive and a negative one . In this paper a new view and discussion has been done for different mathematical operators such as addition, subtraction, ‎multiplication and ‎division and some more idea which has never been considered earlier, called Pelletier Postulate.</p> 2022-06-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/158 Measurement of the Magnetic Monopole Charge, the Missing Link in Quantum Mechanics, Aether and the Dark Energy 2022-05-16T20:05:16+00:00 Eue-Jin Jeong euejinjeong@utexas.edu Dennis Edmondson 137nova@gmail.com <p style="line-height: 100%; orphans: 2; widows: 2; margin-bottom: 0in;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;">Charge conservation in the theory of elementary particle physics is one of the best-established principles in physics. As such, if there are magnetic monopoles in the universe, magnetic charge will most likely be a conserved quantity like electric charges. If neutrinos are magnetic monopoles, as physicists have reported the possibility, the Earth should show signs of having magnetic monopole charge on a macroscopic scale since neutrons must also have magnetic monopole charge if general charge conservation principle is valid. To test this hypothesis, experiments were performed to detect the collective effect of magnetic monopole charge of neutrons on the earth's equator using two balanced high strength neodymium rod magnets. We were able to identify non-zero magnetic monopole charge of the individual neutrons from the experiments. The presence of individual <span style="color: #000000;"><span style="background: #ffffff;">magnetic monopole charges in the universe prompted proposition of the new </span></span>symmetric form of Maxwell's equations. Based on the theoretical investigation of the new Maxwell's equations, we conclude that magnetic monopole neutrinos are the cause of the origin of quantum mechanical uncertainty, dark energy and the medium for electromagnetic wave propagation in space.</span></p> 2022-06-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/157 Re-examination of Energy Conservation Principle in Charged Capacitors and the Reported Anomalous Energy Devices 2022-04-28T16:33:54+00:00 Eue-Jin Jeong euejinjeong@utexas.edu <p>Energy conservation is one of the most fundamental and well-established principles of physics. E. Noether ‎extended the energy conservation principle to the quantum field theoretical domain in empty space by ‎relating the time-translation invariance of the universe with energy conservation. While this is the case in ‎an open empty space, it seems that the local space enclosed by conducting metallic plates has an ‎unexpected property, suggesting that the energy conservation principle may not necessarily apply to ‎localized bound systems of capacitors in electrodynamics. This point of view was raised by noting that the ‎spherical capacitor has calculable electrostatic self-potential energy in both the inner and outer shells, ‎which is not considered in the conventional consideration of the total energy stored in the capacitors. It ‎seems that the concept of moving charges one by one into the capacitor plates has helped bypass the ‎necessary steps to account for the additional repulsive self-potential energy that accumulates ‎simultaneously in both capacitor plates in the process of charging the capacitor. We present itemized ‎details of the repulsive potential energy stored in the capacitors and discuss its physical reality in relation to ‎the anomalous energy devices reported in the past.‎</p> 2022-06-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/156 The Reality of Imaginary Numbers 2022-04-16T21:36:12+00:00 Keith Pelletier keithpell12@yahoo.com <p>As we know, imaginary numbers are square roots of a negative numbers. In this paper, imaginary numbers will be further defined.‎ Every number has a sign to it. A number can either be a positive or a negative, however zero is ‎neither positive nor negative. The number zero is what can be referred to as a neutral number since it does not have any plus or minus signs. In reality, the ‎sign of zero is neutral which is both positive and negative at the same time . The square root of a positive one is both a positive and a negative one . In this paper a new view and discussion has been done for different mathematical operators such as addition, subtraction, ‎multiplication and ‎division and some more idea which has never been considered earlier, called Pelletier Postulate.</p> 2022-06-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/155 The simplest correction to Hubbell’s law and its theoretical implications 2021-11-13T23:49:51+00:00 Frank De Silva franknimal1@outlook.com <p>This paper introduces a simple change to the Hubbell’s equation on distance to red shift. It is shown that the prediction of the equation is compatible with data, obtained from distance measurements, which are independent of red shift. Having shown it’s compatibility with these observations, the paper then introduces the theoretical basis for the equation. The theoretical basis relies on a single assumption that in the expansion of the universe, the ratio d(space)/d(time) = Constant = speed of light. It is shown that the equations of special relativity follow directly from this 1 assumption.</p> Copyright (c) https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/154 The perilousness of illusory thoughts on scientific researches 2021-11-13T22:29:51+00:00 Hamdoon A. Khan dr.hamdhoonkhan@gmail.com <p>This paper deliberates the effectiveness of considering some real-life illusionary events and thought experiments as notable evidence of scientific researches based on the discussion of Hamdoon A. Khan about the types of thoughts. With the support of mathematical proves, we can highlight the limits and boundaries of the use of illusionary events and thoughts; prove that the illusory events and thoughts cannot be used as evidence to substantiate the attributes of the reality behind those illusions.</p> Copyright (c) https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/153 The Eventuality of Equating Energy and Mass - Laws and Theories 2021-09-04T23:19:54+00:00 Hamdoon A. Khan dr.hamdhoonkhan@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">Einstein's famous equation, , revolutionized the theory of physics and introduced new perspectives to the study of energy and mass. However, a close consideration of its principles raises essential concerns on the equitability of mass and energy as well as other phenomena like the speed of light. The unavoidable scientific claim of this paper is that the total energy of matter depends on its internal and external energies, which are accounted for by kinetic and potential energies. In the current work, thought experiments reveal important additions to this idea regarding the apparent effects of external energy on the nature of matter and particles. This paper employs detailed thought experiments and theoretical discussions to identify and address several notable inconsistencies related to the energy and mass equation based on previous works in physics. The relative external energy of an object will be influenced by the position of the observer. The outcomes of the experiments presented herein also provide key insights into the constancy of the internal energy of all matter and particles. Generally, this paper provides an important basis for analyzing the theory underlying the physics of energy and mass, addressing questionable ideas that are common but poorly substantiated and providing a new understanding of the nature of mass and energy that lays the foundations for further research in this area by projecting the difference between them.</p> 2021-09-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/152 The Ultimate Sophistication of Special Theory of Relativity 2021-08-27T00:00:02+00:00 Hamdoon A. Khan dr.hamdhoonkhan@gmail.com <p>With the consideration of the light which carries the photon particles, the Lorentz transformation was constructed with an impressive mathematical approach. But the generalization of that equation for all the velocities of the universe is direct enforcement on other things not to travel faster than light. It has created serious issues in every scientific research that was done in the last century based on the special theory of relativity. This paper replaces the velocity of light with some other velocities and shows us the possible consequences and highlights the issues of special relativity. If I travel through my past or future and was able to see another me there, who would be the real Hamdoon I or the one I see there in the past or future! If the real one is only me, the one I saw, is not me, so, I could not travel through my or someone else's past or future. Therefore, no one can travel through time. If both of us are the same, can the key of personal identity be duplicated or be separated into two or more parts? These are some of the fundamental philosophical arguments that annihilate the concept of time travel which is one of the sequels of special relativity.</p> 2021-08-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/151 The Ultimate Sophistication of Special Theory of Relativity 2021-08-26T23:32:05+00:00 Hamdoon A. Khan dr.hamdhoonkhan@gmail.com <p>With the consideration of the light which carries the photon particles, the Lorentz transformation was constructed with an impressive mathematical approach. But the generalization of that equation for all the velocities of the universe is direct enforcement on other things not to travel faster than light. It has created serious issues in every scientific research that was done in the last century based on the special theory of relativity. This paper replaces the velocity of light with some other velocities and shows us the possible consequences and highlights the issues of special relativity. If I travel through my past or future and was able to see another me there, who would be the real Hamdoon I or the one I see there in the past or future! If the real one is only me, the one I saw, is not me, so, I could not travel through my or someone else's past or future. Therefore, no one can travel through time. If both of us are the same, can the key of personal identity be duplicated or be separated into two or more parts? These are some of the fundamental philosophical arguments that annihilate the concept of time travel which is one of the sequels of special relativity.</p> 2021-08-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/150 The Eventuality of Equating Energy and Mass - Laws and Theories 2021-08-24T14:35:47+00:00 Hamdoon A. Khan dr.hamdhoonkhan@gmail.com <p>Einstein's famous equation, E = mc<sup>2</sup>, revolutionized the theory of physics and introduced new perspectives to the study of energy and mass. However, a close consideration of its principles raises essential concerns on the equitability of mass and energy as well as other phenomena like the speed of light. The unavoidable scientific claim of this paper is that the total energy of matter depends on its internal and external energies, which are accounted for by kinetic and potential energies. In the current work, thought experiments reveal important additions to this idea regarding the apparent effects of external energy on the nature of matter and particles. This paper employs detailed thought experiments and theoretical discussions to identify and address several notable inconsistencies related to the energy and mass equation based on previous works in physics. The relative external energy of an object will be influenced by the position of the observer. The outcomes of the experiments presented herein also provide key insights into the constancy of the internal energy of all matter and particles. Generally, this paper provides an important basis for analyzing the theory underlying the physics of energy and mass, addressing questionable ideas that are common but poorly substantiated and providing a new understanding of the nature of mass and energy that lays the foundations for further research in this area by projecting the difference between them.</p> 2021-09-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/149 Monitoring DSI and Lancaster Indices for Study Dust and Sand Storm In Meteorological Mehrabad Station of Tehran 2021-07-11T20:02:40+00:00 Rahman Sharifi r.sharifi@Areeo.ac.ir Mohammad Khosroshahi r.sharifi@Areeo.ac.ir Mehdi Sadeghipourmarvi r.sharifi@Areeo.ac.ir <p style="text-align: justify;">The first climatic factors affecting the phenomenon of dust and fine dust are collected, reconstructed, extended and completed in the form of DSI (Dust Storm Index) and Lancaster in Mehrabad meteorological station of Tehran was studied and analyzed. The results showed that in Mehrabad meteorological station in terms of temperature in 1992 the lowest value and in 1998, 2001, 2017 the highest value and in terms of humidity in 2017 the lowest amount of humidity and in 2000 the highest amount of humidity and in terms of rainfall in the year 2013 the lowest amount of precipitation and in 2019 the highest amount of precipitation and in terms of evaporation in 2009 the lowest amount of evaporation and in 1391 the highest amount of evaporation and finally in terms of number of dust days in 1998 the lowest number of days and in 2009 the highest number of days Dust has been recorded. Mehrabad station of Tehran in years showed DSI index, more than one number and Lancaster index, more than fifty number in most of the mentioned years, the values of temperature and evaporation are high and the values of precipitation and humidity are relatively low, which shows the direct relationship between the dust storm index (DSI index) and mobility index of sand dunes (Lancaster index) is almost too high and above the number It is noteworthy that in most of the mentioned years, Meteorological factors and data have been at Mehrabad station in Tehran.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/148 The ultimate sophistication of special theory of relativity 2021-08-11T20:22:40+00:00 Hamdoon A. Khan dr.hamdhoonkhan@gmail.com <p>With the consideration of the light which carries the photon particles, the Lorentz transformation was constructed with an impressive mathematical approach. But the generalization of that equation for all the velocities of the universe is direct enforcement on other things not to travel faster than light. It has created serious issues in every scientific research that was done in the last century based on the special theory of relativity. This paper replaces the velocity of light with some other velocities and shows us the possible consequences and highlights the issues of special relativity. If I travel through my past or future and was able to see another me there, who would be the real Hamdoon; I or the one I see there in the past or future! If the real one is only me, the one I saw, is not me, so, I could not travel through my or someone else's past or future. Therefore, no one can travel through time. If both of us are the same, can the key of personal identity be duplicated or be separated into two or more parts? These are some of the fundamental philosophical arguments that annihilate the concept of time travel which is one of the sequels of special relativity.</p> Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals