https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/issue/feed International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences 2021-09-16T14:28:56+00:00 Ko. Nakajima (中島) info@fundamentaljournals.org Open Journal Systems <p><a title=" International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science" href="https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/index" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong><img src="https://www.fundamentaljournals.org/public/site/images/admin/96749653-3310442022301960-7899194878892965888-o.png" alt="" width="1499" height="351" /></strong></a></p> <p><strong>ISSN: 2231-8186 </strong><br /><strong>DOI: 10.14331/ijfps</strong><br /><strong>Aims and Scope</strong><br />International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences (IJFPS) or (Int. J. Fundam. Phys. Sci) is an International Open Access Journal with OJS (Open Journal Systems) publishing quarterly and covering all parts of Sciences in Mathematics, Theoretical &amp; Experimental Physics, Astronomy, Astrophysics, Chemistry, Geology, Computer Sciences, Civil, GIS, IT and etc. </p> <p><a title="Worldcat" href="https://www.worldcat.org/search?q=International+Journal+of+Fundamental+Physical+Sciences+%28IJFPS%29&amp;fq=+%28x0%3Aartchap-+OR+%28x0%3Ajrnl+x4%3Adigital%29+OR+%28x0%3Aarchv+x4%3Adigital%29%29&amp;dblist=638&amp;se=&amp;sd=&amp;fc=yr:_25&amp;qt=show_more_yr%3A&amp;cookie" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Worldcat</a></p> https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/154 The perilousness of illusory thoughts on scientific researches 2021-09-16T14:28:56+00:00 Hamdoon A. Khan dr.hamdhoonkhan@gmail.com <p>This paper deliberates the effectiveness of considering some real-life illusionary events and thought experiments as notable evidence of scientific researches based on the discussion of Hamdoon A. Khan about the types of thoughts. With the support of mathematical proves, we can highlight the limits and boundaries of the use of illusionary events and thoughts; prove that the illusory events and thoughts cannot be used as evidence to substantiate the attributes of the reality behind those illusions.</p> Copyright (c) https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/153 The Eventuality of Equating Energy and Mass - Laws and Theories 2021-09-04T23:19:54+00:00 Hamdoon A. Khan dr.hamdhoonkhan@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">Einstein's famous equation, , revolutionized the theory of physics and introduced new perspectives to the study of energy and mass. However, a close consideration of its principles raises essential concerns on the equitability of mass and energy as well as other phenomena like the speed of light. The unavoidable scientific claim of this paper is that the total energy of matter depends on its internal and external energies, which are accounted for by kinetic and potential energies. In the current work, thought experiments reveal important additions to this idea regarding the apparent effects of external energy on the nature of matter and particles. This paper employs detailed thought experiments and theoretical discussions to identify and address several notable inconsistencies related to the energy and mass equation based on previous works in physics. The relative external energy of an object will be influenced by the position of the observer. The outcomes of the experiments presented herein also provide key insights into the constancy of the internal energy of all matter and particles. Generally, this paper provides an important basis for analyzing the theory underlying the physics of energy and mass, addressing questionable ideas that are common but poorly substantiated and providing a new understanding of the nature of mass and energy that lays the foundations for further research in this area by projecting the difference between them.</p> 2021-09-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/152 The Ultimate Sophistication of Special Theory of Relativity 2021-08-27T00:00:02+00:00 Hamdoon A. Khan dr.hamdhoonkhan@gmail.com <p>With the consideration of the light which carries the photon particles, the Lorentz transformation was constructed with an impressive mathematical approach. But the generalization of that equation for all the velocities of the universe is direct enforcement on other things not to travel faster than light. It has created serious issues in every scientific research that was done in the last century based on the special theory of relativity. This paper replaces the velocity of light with some other velocities and shows us the possible consequences and highlights the issues of special relativity. If I travel through my past or future and was able to see another me there, who would be the real Hamdoon I or the one I see there in the past or future! If the real one is only me, the one I saw, is not me, so, I could not travel through my or someone else's past or future. Therefore, no one can travel through time. If both of us are the same, can the key of personal identity be duplicated or be separated into two or more parts? These are some of the fundamental philosophical arguments that annihilate the concept of time travel which is one of the sequels of special relativity.</p> 2021-08-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/151 The Ultimate Sophistication of Special Theory of Relativity 2021-08-26T23:32:05+00:00 Hamdoon A. Khan dr.hamdhoonkhan@gmail.com <p>With the consideration of the light which carries the photon particles, the Lorentz transformation was constructed with an impressive mathematical approach. But the generalization of that equation for all the velocities of the universe is direct enforcement on other things not to travel faster than light. It has created serious issues in every scientific research that was done in the last century based on the special theory of relativity. This paper replaces the velocity of light with some other velocities and shows us the possible consequences and highlights the issues of special relativity. If I travel through my past or future and was able to see another me there, who would be the real Hamdoon I or the one I see there in the past or future! If the real one is only me, the one I saw, is not me, so, I could not travel through my or someone else's past or future. Therefore, no one can travel through time. If both of us are the same, can the key of personal identity be duplicated or be separated into two or more parts? These are some of the fundamental philosophical arguments that annihilate the concept of time travel which is one of the sequels of special relativity.</p> 2021-08-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/150 The Eventuality of Equating Energy and Mass - Laws and Theories 2021-08-24T14:35:47+00:00 Hamdoon A. Khan dr.hamdhoonkhan@gmail.com <p>Einstein's famous equation, E = mc<sup>2</sup>, revolutionized the theory of physics and introduced new perspectives to the study of energy and mass. However, a close consideration of its principles raises essential concerns on the equitability of mass and energy as well as other phenomena like the speed of light. The unavoidable scientific claim of this paper is that the total energy of matter depends on its internal and external energies, which are accounted for by kinetic and potential energies. In the current work, thought experiments reveal important additions to this idea regarding the apparent effects of external energy on the nature of matter and particles. This paper employs detailed thought experiments and theoretical discussions to identify and address several notable inconsistencies related to the energy and mass equation based on previous works in physics. The relative external energy of an object will be influenced by the position of the observer. The outcomes of the experiments presented herein also provide key insights into the constancy of the internal energy of all matter and particles. Generally, this paper provides an important basis for analyzing the theory underlying the physics of energy and mass, addressing questionable ideas that are common but poorly substantiated and providing a new understanding of the nature of mass and energy that lays the foundations for further research in this area by projecting the difference between them.</p> 2021-09-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/149 Monitoring DSI and Lancaster Indices for Study Dust and Sand Storm In Meteorological Mehrabad Station of Tehran 2021-07-11T20:02:40+00:00 Rahman Sharifi r.sharifi@Areeo.ac.ir Mohammad Khosroshahi r.sharifi@Areeo.ac.ir Mehdi Sadeghipourmarvi r.sharifi@Areeo.ac.ir <p style="text-align: justify;">The first climatic factors affecting the phenomenon of dust and fine dust are collected, reconstructed, extended and completed in the form of DSI (Dust Storm Index) and Lancaster in Mehrabad meteorological station of Tehran was studied and analyzed. The results showed that in Mehrabad meteorological station in terms of temperature in 1992 the lowest value and in 1998, 2001, 2017 the highest value and in terms of humidity in 2017 the lowest amount of humidity and in 2000 the highest amount of humidity and in terms of rainfall in the year 2013 the lowest amount of precipitation and in 2019 the highest amount of precipitation and in terms of evaporation in 2009 the lowest amount of evaporation and in 1391 the highest amount of evaporation and finally in terms of number of dust days in 1998 the lowest number of days and in 2009 the highest number of days Dust has been recorded. Mehrabad station of Tehran in years showed DSI index, more than one number and Lancaster index, more than fifty number in most of the mentioned years, the values of temperature and evaporation are high and the values of precipitation and humidity are relatively low, which shows the direct relationship between the dust storm index (DSI index) and mobility index of sand dunes (Lancaster index) is almost too high and above the number It is noteworthy that in most of the mentioned years, Meteorological factors and data have been at Mehrabad station in Tehran.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/148 The ultimate sophistication of special theory of relativity 2021-08-11T20:22:40+00:00 Hamdoon A. Khan dr.hamdhoonkhan@gmail.com <p>With the consideration of the light which carries the photon particles, the Lorentz transformation was constructed with an impressive mathematical approach. But the generalization of that equation for all the velocities of the universe is direct enforcement on other things not to travel faster than light. It has created serious issues in every scientific research that was done in the last century based on the special theory of relativity. This paper replaces the velocity of light with some other velocities and shows us the possible consequences and highlights the issues of special relativity. If I travel through my past or future and was able to see another me there, who would be the real Hamdoon; I or the one I see there in the past or future! If the real one is only me, the one I saw, is not me, so, I could not travel through my or someone else's past or future. Therefore, no one can travel through time. If both of us are the same, can the key of personal identity be duplicated or be separated into two or more parts? These are some of the fundamental philosophical arguments that annihilate the concept of time travel which is one of the sequels of special relativity.</p> Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/146 Monitoring DSI and LANCASTER Indices for Study Dust & Sand Storm in Meteorological Mehrabad Station of Tehran. 2021-05-11T22:27:07+00:00 Rahman Sharifi R.sharifi@Areeo.ac.ir Mohammad Khosroshahi r.sharifi@Areeo.ac.ir Mehdi Sadeghipourmarvi r.sharifi@Areeo.ac.ir Abstract The first climatic factors affecting the phenomenon of dust and fine dust are collected, reconstructed, extended and completed in the form of DSI and Lancaster in Mehrabad meteorological station of Tehran was studied and analyzed. The results showed that in Mehrabad meteorological station in terms of temperature in 1371 the lowest value and in 1377, 1380, 1396 the highest value and in terms of humidity in 1396 the lowest amount of humidity and in 1379 the highest amount of humidity and in terms of rainfall in the year 1392 the lowest amount of precipitation and in 1398 the highest amount of precipitation and in terms of evaporation in 1388 the lowest amount of evaporation and in 1391 the highest amount of evaporation and finally in terms of number of dust days in 1377 the lowest number of days and in 1388 the highest number of days Dust has been recorded. Mehrabad station of Tehran in years showed DSI index, more than one number and Lancaster index, more than fifty number in most of the mentioned years, the values of temperature and evaporation are high and the values of precipitation and humidity are relatively low, which shows the direct relationship between the dust storm index (DSI index) and mobility index of sand dunes (Lancaster index) is almost too high and above the number It is noteworthy that in most of the mentioned years, Meteorological factors and data have been at Mehrabad station in Tehran. 2021-07-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/145 Estimating Physical Properties of Confirmed Exoplanets: I. Calculation of essential planetary properties-Possible M-R cataloging of exoplanets 2021-05-02T01:17:21+00:00 Bijan Nikouravan nikouravan@gmail.com <p>The discovery of extrasolar planets outside our solar system and around other stars is now well underway. In the presented paper, calculations of some physical properties for confirmed exoplanets have been done. We have estimated physical properties such as the semi-major axis for potentially habitable exoplanets, the mass of planets by applying Kepler's third law around the mass of solar, Jupiter, and Earth-mass, stellar luminosity, habitability zone for the inner center and outer regions, radial velocity amplitude, planetary equilibrium temperature (PET) or effective radiation emission temperature and planet density. The mass-radius (MR) relationship of planets was investigated for potentially habitable exoplanets of three different groups of extrasolar planets: Subterran (Mars-size), Terran (Earth-size), and Superterran (Super-Earths or Mini-Neptunes); introduced in PHL, and found well coefficient values for each group. The minimum and maximum values for the mass and radius of exoplanets have been selected from 0.1&lt; M &lt; 10<em> M</em><sub>⊕</sub> and 0.4 &lt; <em>R</em> &lt; 2.5 R<sub>⊕</sub> . The same MR relationship has also estimated the same properties for a larger number of confirmed exoplanets with a mass and radius of 0.1&lt; M &lt;100 M<sub>⊕</sub> and 0.4&lt; <em>R</em> &lt; 15 R<sub>⊕</sub> , respectively, resulting their classification within 7 groups of mass and radius, with good coefficient values for each group. This is a new, possible cataloging that may need more effort for concluding a better understanding of the properties and varieties of the exoplanets.</p> 2021-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/141 On The Schottky Barrier Height Lowering Effect of Ti3SiC2 in Ohmic Contacts to P-Type 4H-SiC 2021-04-16T20:33:39+00:00 C. A. Fisher Craig.A.Fisher@warwick.ac.uk M. R. Jennings Craig.A.Fisher@warwick.ac.uk Y. K. Sharma Craig.A.Fisher@warwick.ac.uk A. Sanchez-Fuentes Craig.A.Fisher@warwick.ac.uk D. Walker Craig.A.Fisher@warwick.ac.uk P. M. Gammon Craig.A.Fisher@warwick.ac.uk A. Pérez-Tomás Craig.A.Fisher@warwick.ac.uk S. M. Thomas Craig.A.Fisher@warwick.ac.uk S. E. Burrows Craig.A.Fisher@warwick.ac.uk P. A. Mawby Craig.A.Fisher@warwick.ac.uk <p>In this paper, an experimental investigation into titanium (Ti) / aluminium (Al)-based ohmic contacts to p-type 4H-silicon carbide (SiC) has been presented. Electrical characterisation of the fabricated contacts showed that metal structures with an initial Ti layer yielded the lowest specific contact resistance (ρ<sub>c</sub>), with a mean value of 3.7×10<sup>-5</sup> Ω-cm<sup>2</sup> being achieved after annealing in argon (Ar) at 1000°C for 2 minutes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis illustrated the epitaxial relationship between the 4H-SiC and the as-deposited Ti layer, and, in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, showed that after annealing a ~5 nm thick layer of Ti<sub>3</sub>SiC<sub>2</sub> was present, epitaxially arranged with the 4H-SiC. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the presence of the Ti<sub>3</sub>SiC<sub>2</sub> metallic phase was more prevalent in the samples with Ti as the initial metal layer annealed at 1000°C, which corresponded with lower specific contact resistance. Fitting of experimental data to a thermionic field emission (TFE) model allowed the Schottky barrier height to be extracted; it was found that the lowest Schottky barrier heights were more prevalent where the most intense Ti<sub>3</sub>SiC<sub>2</sub> phases were observed during XRD analysis.</p> 2014-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2014 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/140 Giant Magnetoresistance and Oscillations In Interlayer Exchange Coupling In Co/Cu/Co Multi-Layers 2021-04-16T20:23:20+00:00 Haji Shirinzadeh h_szadeh@merc.ac.ir <p>The oscillations in interlayer exchange coupling between ferromagnetic layers which are Separated by a nonmagnetic spacer layer, manifests n oscillatory magnetic properties which depend on the thickness of Copper interlayer. Using Molecular Beam Epitaxy system. We have made multilayer films with alternating cobalt and copper thin films. The preliminary results are reported on microstructure and magnetization properties. The conductance between first and third film depends on the relative orientation of magnetization between them. This optimizes to large magneto resistance changes called Giant Magneto-resistance effect.</p> 2014-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2014 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/139 Calculation of The Deposited Energy and Stopping Range For The Proton, Deuteron and Carbon Beams In Laser Fusion by Fast Ignition 2021-04-16T20:10:04+00:00 S.N. Hoseinimotlagh hoseinimotlagh@hotmail.com M. Zareie hoseinimotlagh@hotmail.com <p>The main goal of this paper is calculation of deposited energy and as a result evaluation of stopping range of the ionic beams of carbon, deuteron and proton. The deposited energy is the function of two parameters: (a) beam energy and (b) electron temperature. Also the stopping range depends on the temperature, ionic beam energy and density of fuel pellet. Our calculations show that with decreasing the stopping range of particle, the deposited energy is enhanced. In the same temperature and fuel density, carbon has less stopping range and more deposited energy but higher energy is needed to accelerate the beam , this causes carbon has less energy than others. However, deuteron has more stopping range and deposited energy in comparison with carbon also it has better beam gain in comparison with carbon. Stopping range and proton beam gain respect to the other fuels is placed in lower level , but the low threshold intensity to accelerate it, cause it obtain the high gain. The optimum beam gain of the proton is 150 while it is 75 for deuteron and 1 for carbon. The fuel geometry must be considered for more studies in order to increase the beam gain.</p> 2014-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2014 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/138 The Electromagnetic Radiation Mechanism 2021-04-16T19:57:01+00:00 Mahmoud E. Yousif yousif_474@yahoo.com <p>This paper suggested a mechanism for Electromagnetic Radiation (EM-R); the mechanism is based on the Flip-Flop (F-F) of combined Circular Magnetic Field (CMF) and Electric Field (EF) produced by energetic charged particles, the action released the EM-R; while as the F-F generates EM-R, it is also achieved within specific Flipping Time (<em>t</em><sub>F</sub>), the inverse of which is the Flipping Frequency (<em>f</em><sub>F</sub>), the model is compared with Maxwell’s two transformations to elaborate differences and characteristics, hence when EM-R is better understood, that will reflect on the physical world and related human ideas and philosophies.</p> 2014-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2014 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/137 Features of Loschmidt's Number and Its Theoretical Frontiers 2021-04-16T19:33:40+00:00 M.E. Zhussupov mjalmata@mail.ru <p style="text-align: justify;">Loschmidt's number has played an important role in the development of science and technology and in the establishment of various standards. However, despite advances in the technological methods of estimating Loschmidt's number, the nature of its formation remains unknown. The information that lies in the nature of this constant can be useful for understanding the properties of a physical vacuum and the character of processes of the interaction of matter in this environment. Basing on time and experiment-tested the laws of molecular physics and thermodynamics, some features of the host medium of micro-particles involved in the formation of Loschmidt’s number were identified, describing its nature and the previously unknown phenomena of fundamental pressure of a Universe. The characteristics of various physical and chemical processes occurring in systems associated with a vacuum and the behavior of heavenly bodies are considered from the perspective of this phenomenon’s existence.</p> 2014-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2014 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/136 Radiological Analysis of Suitability of Kitui South Limestone for use as Building Material 2021-04-15T20:57:34+00:00 Bendibbie Munyao Mulwa bmulwa1@gmail.com David Muchori Maina bmulwa1@gmail.com Jayanti Pushotami Patel bmulwa1@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">Indoor exposure arises from the soils from which the building stands and the building materials used for construction. This is because all building materials contain certain levels of natural radionuclides <sup>238</sup>U, <sup>232</sup>Th, and <sup>40</sup>K. Limestone is the most commonly used building material in Kenya due to its availability and low cost. The limestone from Kitui South has not been mined to process for use but limestone mining and processing plants were being set by the time of this study. This study therefore aimed at evaluating the suitability of the limestone for use as a building material before its mining and processing begin. The activity concentrations of the limestone samples were determined and the radium equivalent, external hazard index, gamma activity index and alpha index evaluated. The results showed that the radium equivalent activity for all the samples was below the recommended limit of 370Bqkg<sup>-1</sup> and all the radiation hazard indices were below a unit. Therefore, the limestone can be used as building material or for manufacture of building materials without any restrictions.</p> 2013-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2013 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/135 Spectral Analysis of Aeromagnetic Data over Part of the Southern Bida basin, West-Central Nigeria 2021-04-15T20:38:03+00:00 Ikumbur Emmanuel Bemsen ibemsen@gmail.com Onwuemesi Ajana Godwin ibemsen@gmail.com Anakwuba Emmanuel Kenechukwu ibemsen@gmail.com Chinwuko Augustine Ifeanyi ibemsen@gmail.com Usman Ayatu Ojonugwa ibemsen@gmail.com Okonkwo Churchill Chukwunonso ibemsen@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">Qualitative and quantitative interpretations of aeromagnetic map over part of the Southern Bida Basin, West-Central Nigeria have carried out using spectral analysis. The aeromagnetic maps digitized along flight lines of 2km interval. The qualitative interpretation of the magnetic anomaly and first vertical derivative maps revealed that the area is intensely faulted with major faults trending East-West (E-W) and minor ones Northeast-Southwest (NE-SW) directions. The result obtained using the spectral method reveals two depth sources in the area, the deeper sources range from 2.81 to 3.24km, while the shallower sources range from 0.45 to 1.49km.The result also shows a linear depression with sedimentary accumulation trending E-W. The average sedimentary thickness in the region is about 2.90km.</p> 2013-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2013 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/134 Design of A Femtosecond Blue Pulse Generation System By Pumping Of Kn Crystal With Cr:LiSAF Lasers 2021-04-15T20:20:29+00:00 Hosein Karami hossain51@yahoo.com Mohammad Taghi Soltanifard hossain51@yahoo.com Reza Aghbolaghi hossain51@yahoo.com <p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="fontstyle0">In this paper, we described and simulated the generation of the blue pulse (460nm) by nonlinear KN(KNbO3) crystal , that pumped by femtosecond diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF lasers. Our simulation shows that, by focusing on laser oscillator output pulses with characteristics such as 860nm wavelength, 200fs,330MHz repetition rate 14o Pico joule( PJ) energy in KN crystal with 3mm length at 22 0C by 15 mm lens in less than 20-micrometer spot size with single-pass produce pulses with 42pJ energy,425fs, 30% optical efficiency and 1% total efficiency.</span> </p> 2013-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2013 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/133 Theoretical Review of Solar Radio Burst III (SRBT III) Associated With of Solar Flare Phenomena 2021-04-15T19:34:57+00:00 Z.S. Hamidi zetysharizat@siswa.um.edu.my Ungku Ferwani Salwa Ungku Ibrahim zetysharizat@siswa.um.edu.my Z.Z Abidin zetysharizat@siswa.um.edu.my Z.A Ibrahim zetysharizat@siswa.um.edu.my N.N.M. Shariff zetysharizat@siswa.um.edu.my <p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="fontstyle0">This article broadly reviews our knowledge of theoretical solar radio burst type III (SRBT III) in the low-frequency region. The eruption mechanism of solar flares and type III are currently an extremely active area of research especially during the solar cycle is towards maximum. There is a particular focus on their physical properties, as opposed to microphysics such as that needed for the evolution and formation of this burst or particle acceleration as such. In this work, we summarize the related theory, model, significant parameters and relate it with the behavior of the burst in low range frequency. Although this is only a combination of all significant literature, it is hoped that it will give some idea on how to understand in detail on this burst.</span> </p> 2013-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2013 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/132 Equilibrium of Planets in The Solar System-A New Approach 2021-04-08T01:36:44+00:00 D. P. Sheth fundamentaljournals@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">As per Newtonian laws of motion and gravitation, the gravitational force of attraction governs all the planets of the solar system. Here we discuss the equilibrium of planets in which gravitational force represents one side and the magnetic hold the other side. The planet achieves equilibrium in the solar field at that point where it's centrifugal (i.e., gravitational) force balances the magnetic hold of the sun. The sun develops magnetic flux on the planet according to its surface area, magnetic content, and rotational velocity.&nbsp; As per available data, calculations in this regard are in good agreement with the functions achieving rotational and orbital motions and equilibrium of planet, thus supporting our concept. Therefore, this theory provides the missing link explaining magnetic interaction with the centrifugal force of the planet to achieve equilibrium, hold, and motion.</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/131 About Black Holes 2021-03-26T00:57:25+00:00 Sankar Palchoudhury sankarpalchoudhury@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">All kinds of waves occur for the disturbances in the quiet gravitational field. Different waves powered differently and propagated in the gravitational field. A black hole is the higher GFI (Gravitational Field Intensity) area. The rays do not possess, coming from a distant source when pass by the black holes, adequate strength to disturb in the higher GFI area of the black holes. Naturally, the rays take on a curve path as the provision in a circular area depends on the radius (distance), keeping distance according to the lower GFI area around the black holes’ center.</p> 2021-03-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals