International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps <p><a title=" International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science" href="https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/index" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong><img src="https://www.fundamentaljournals.org/public/site/images/admin/96749653-3310442022301960-7899194878892965888-o.png" alt="" width="1499" height="351" /></strong></a></p> <p><strong><span style="color: darkblue;">ISSN: 2231:-8186</span></strong><br /><strong><span style="color: darkblue;">DOI: 10.14331/ijfps</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="color: red; text-decoration: underline; font-size: 17px;">International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science (IJFPS)</span></strong></p> <p><em><strong><span style="color: red;">IJFPS (Int.J. Fundam. Phys. Sci )</span></strong></em> is a multidisciplinary and quarterly open-accessjournal that publishing all accepted papers as an open-access journal. IJFPS, publishing original research and review papers in English covering all areas of fundamental physical sciences studies such as Applied Physics, Astronomy (theoretical and experimental), Astrophysics and Cosmology, Atmospheric physics, Atomic Physics, Biophysics, Chemistry, Civil, Earthquake, Engineering, and Technology, Fuzzy logic, General and Special Relativity, Geology, Geophysics, Gravitation, History of Astronomy, History of Mathematics, History of Physics, History of Sciences, Material sciences, Mathematical Physics, Mechanics, Nuclear Physics, Optics &amp; Lasers, Plasma Physics, Pure Mathematics, Quantum Mechanics, Radiation Physics, Remote sensing and GIS, Solid state physics, Spectroscopy, Theoretical Physics, Thermodynamics and more.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong><span style="color: red; text-decoration: underline; font-size: 17px;">How to Submit Manuscript to IJFPS ?</span></strong></p> <p><strong>Send your Manuscript(s) to this Email address.</strong></p> <p> <a title="email for manuscript submission" href="mailto:fundamentaljournals@gmail.com">fundamentaljournals@gmail.com </a></p> <p><strong>The Journal Manager will register all user accounts for reviewers.</strong></p> en-US fundamentaljournals@gmail.com (Ko. Nakajima (中島)) support@fundamentaljournals.org (A. Balali) Mon, 31 Jul 2023 02:38:39 +0000 OJS 3.2.1.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Test100 https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/215 <p>test</p> test100 test1 Copyright (c) https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/215 On the Physical Properties of G-Type Main ‎Sequence Stars https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/193 <p>This research focuses on the classification and properties of G-Type main sequence stars. It discusses the historical ‎development of star classification systems and their importance in understanding stellar evolution, composition, ‎and galactic structures. The paper also examines the mass-radius and mass-luminosity relationships of stars, ‎highlighting the strong positive correlations between mass and radius, as well as mass and luminosity. The findings ‎suggest that more massive stars tend to be larger and more luminous. However, further analysis is needed to explore ‎the underlying relationships between these variables.‎‎</p> Bijan Nikouravan, Misha Nikouravan Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/193 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Reality of Schrödinger’s Cat https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/192 <p>The evidence that the probability interpretation is indispensable for the wave function has not been reasonably revealed since the early stages of quantum theory like the topic of Schrödinger’s cat has been discussed from various viewpoints. Recently the Schrödinger equation has reasonably derived from the diffusion equation in accordance with the causality for the Newton mechanics, regardless of the de Broglie’s hypothesis. In the derivation process, the problem of probability interpretation has been reasonably solved in relation to a wave function collapse, and moreover not only the evidence for a micro particle having a wave nature but also the evidence for validity of the de Broglie’s hypothesis itself has been theoretically revealed. Further, the other fundamental problems having been unsolved for a long time are also reasonably solved. For example, it is theoretically revealed that such a single composite particle as a cluster molecule has a wave nature when it is composed of atoms smaller than about 770 numbers.</p> Takahisa Okino Copyright (c) 2023 Fundamental Journals https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/‎ https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/192 Mon, 27 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Reality of Schrödinger ’s Cat https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/191 <p>&nbsp;The evidence that the probability interpretation is indispensable for the wave function has not been reasonably revealed since the early stages of quantum theory like the topic of ’s cat has been discussed from various viewpoints. Recently the &nbsp;equation has reasonably derived from the diffusion equation in accordance with the causality for the Newton mechanics, regardless of the de Broglie’s hypothesis. In the derivation process, the problem of probability interpretation has been reasonably solved in relation to a wave function collapse, and moreover not only the evidence for a micro particle having a wave nature but also the evidence for validity of the de Broglie’s hypothesis itself has been theoretically revealed. Further, the other fundamental problems having been unsolved for a long time are also reasonably solved. For example, it is theoretically revealed that such a single composite particle as a cluster molecule has a wave nature when it is composed of atoms smaller than about 770 numbers.</p> Takahisa Okino Copyright (c) https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/191 Conversion of Waves Under Different Gravitational Field Intensity Area https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/189 <p>Natural disturbances in the gravitational field cause light, infrared, x-ray, and other waves. We define a complete wave as having two parts: a crest and a trough. A complete wave represents a single frequency. Every wave is initially powered at the source along with its wavelength and amplitude, which all vary with the gravitational field intensity in subsequent steps. A/λ has a significant impact on the wave's power. A gravitational wave is a converted wave, because of its changing power due to the changing intensity of the gravitational field.</p> Sankar Palchoudhury ‎ Copyright (c) 2023 Fundamental Journals https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/‎ https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/189 Wed, 15 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Irrefutable Proof of The Non-Existence of a ‎Gravitational ‎Singularity at The Centre of a ‎Black Hole https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/188 <p>Astronomical observations confirm that gravitational force decreases with the square of the distance. If the gravitational force in the centre of Sagittarius A* were close to infinity and would decrease with the square of the distance, our Milky Way could not exist as we observe it. This fact is irrefutable proof that there is no gravitational singularity in the centre of Sagittarius A* and in general, there is no gravitational singularity in the centre of a black hole.</p> Amrit Šorli Copyright (c) 2023 Fundamental Journals https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/‎ https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/188 Sun, 12 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Conversion of waves under different gravitational field intensity area https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/187 <p>Natural disturbances in the gravitational field cause light, infrared, x-ray, and other waves. We define a complete wave as having two parts: a crest and a trough. A complete wave represents a single frequency. Every wave is initially powered at the source along with its wavelength and amplitude, which all vary with the gravitational field intensity in subsequent steps. A/λ has a significant impact on the wave's power. A gravitational wave is a converted wave, because of its changing power due to the changing intensity of the gravitational field.</p> Sankar Palchoudhury Copyright (c) https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/187 Irrefutable proof of the non-existence of a gravitational singularity at the centre of a black hole https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/186 <p>Astronomical observations confirm that gravitational force decreases with the square of the distance. If the gravitational force in the centre of Sagittarius A* were close to infinity and would decrease with the square of the distance, our Milky Way could not exist as we observe it. This fact is irrefutable proof that there is no gravitational singularity in the centre of Sagittarius A* and in general, there is no gravitational singularity in the centre of a black hole.</p> Amrit Šorli Copyright (c) https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/186 The Holographic Complexity on Extremal Branes with Exceptional Higher Derivative Interactions https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/185 <p>The philosophy of presented multiversum doctrina dominum article is related to the coloring of the<br>theoretical framework with respect to holographic complexity on extremal branes in exclusive higher-<br>dimensional representations. We examine holographic complexity in the doubly holographic model in-<br>troduced in the current literature to study quantum extremal islands. We focus on the holographic<br>complexity volume proposal for boundary subregions in the island phase. Exploiting the Fefferman-<br>Graham expansion of the metric and other geometric quantities near the extremal brane, we derive<br>the leading contributions to the complexity and interpret these in terms of the generalized volume of<br>the island derived from the induced higher-curvature gravity action on the extremal brane. We discuss<br>the interpretation of path integral optimization as a uniformization problem in even dimensions. This<br>perspective allows for a systematical construction of the higher-dimensional path integral complexity in<br>holographic conformal field theories in terms of Q-curvature actions. Motivated by the exceptional re-<br>sults, we propose a generalization of the higher-dimensional derivative actions of exotic extremal branes.</p> Boris Stoyanov Copyright (c) https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/185 The Extremal Nature of Membrane Newton-Cartan Formulations with Exotic Supergravity Theories https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/184 <p>We construct a non-relativistic limit of eleven and ten-dimensional supergravity theories from the point<br>of view of the fundamental symmetries, the higher-dimensional effective action, and the equations of<br>motion. This fundamental limit can only be realized in a supersymmetric way provided we impose<br>by hand a set of geometric constraints, invariant under all the symmetries of the non-relativistic the-<br>ory, that define a so-called Dilatation-invariant Superstring Newton-Cartan geometry and Membrane<br>Newton-Cartan expansion. In order to obtain a finite fundamental limit, the field strength of the<br>eleven-dimensional four-form is required to obey a transverse self-duality constraint, ultimately due to<br>the presence of the Chern-Simons term in eleven dimensions. The present research consider a non-<br>relativistic fundamental limit of the bosonic sector of eleven-dimensional supergravity, leading to a<br>theory based on a Covariant Membrane Newton-Cartan Supergeometry. We further show that the<br>Membrane Newton-Cartan theory can be embedded in the U-duality symmetric formulation of excep-<br>tional field theory, demonstrating that it shares the same exceptional Lie algebraic symmetries as the<br>relativistic supergravity, and providing an alternative derivation of the extra Poisson equation.</p> Boris Stoyanov Copyright (c) https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/184 The Extremal Higher Dimensional Constructions of Fundamental Brane–Antibrane Systems https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/183 <p>We calculate the extremal higher dimensional effective actions of fundamental brane-antibrane<br>systems elegantly presented in the theoretical framework of advanced membrane theory con-<br>structions. Detailed study of brane-antibrane systems reveals when brane separation is smaller<br>than the superstring length scale, spectrum of this system has different tachyonic modes and<br>interaction regimes in the moduli superspace. The higher dimensional effective actions should<br>then include these modes because they are the most important ones which rule the extremal<br>dynamics of the fundamental brane systems. In this regard, it has been shown that an effec-<br>tive action of Born-Infeld type proposed in the current literature can capture many properties<br>of the decay of non-BPS Dp-branes in superstring and membrane theory. The effective actions<br>of brane-antibrane systems in Types IIA and IIB superstring theories should be given by some<br>extension of the DBI action and the WZ terms which include the tachyon field configurations.<br>The DBI part may be given by the projection of the effective action of two non-BPS Dp-branes<br>in Type IIB theory. We are interested in this paper in the appearance of tachyon, gauge field and<br>the RR field in these extremal higher dimensional actions. Using the consistency of the present<br>constructions, we have also found the first higher derivative corrections to the exceptional part<br>of the extremal effective actions with brane-antibrane systems.</p> Boris Stoyanov Copyright (c) https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/183 The Second Order Term in the Linearized Theory of General ‎Relativity, Dark Matter and Related ‎Cosmological Mysteries https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/170 <p>The blackhole jets, Saturn ring, dark matter and GPB anomaly are generally considered unrelated physical mysteries that have no common causes that create them. In Newtonian mechanics, the center of mass of an object change only when there is an external force applied to the object. However, the longitudinally asymmetric and radially circular (LARC) rotating objects like cone, funnel, and hemisphere have a unique mechanical property of creating a finite shift of relativistic center of mass depending on the speed of the rotation due to the difference in the instant speed of the individual mass components of the object while in rotation (<a href="#_ENREF_9">Jeong, 1996</a>). This suggests that the LARC rotating object has a complex mechanical property that does not obey the conventional Newtonian mechanical principle. It turned out that in the weak field limit of general relativity there is a second order mathematical term that requires a finite shift of the center of mass to establish its physicality. This term was discarded as physically meaningless because spherical source does not develop a shift of the center of mass even in rotation due to the mathematical cancelation. It is shown that the relativistic shift of the center of mass from the rotating LARC object is the cause of the physically meaningful dipole gravity that reduces into Lense-Thirring force at the center of the rotating spherical shell. However, after careful examination we found out that the signs of Lense-Thirring forces were reversed and once the signs are corrected, dipole gravity predicts blackhole jets and the flat rotational velocity distribution curve which is the key evidence of the existence of the dark matter. We presented that the rings in Saturn, Jupiter, Neptune and Uranus, the GPB experimental anomaly are also the results of dipole gravity from the rotating spherical sources.</p> Eue Jin Jeong Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/‎ https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/170 Thu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A phenomenon in Einstein’s equivalence principle https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/168 <p>Albert Einstein assumed the equivalence principle which states that&nbsp;gravitational and inertial forces are of a similar nature and often indistinguishable. Also it asserts the&nbsp;equivalence of inertial mass and gravitational mass. Einstein assumed this for the formulation of his general relativity theory .In this letter, we logically analyse this principle.</p> Sennimalai Kalimuthu Copyright (c) https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/168 Femtosecond Spin Dynamics Mechanism In Graphenes: The Bloch NMR-Schrödinger Probe https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/167 <p>The mechanism of the femtosecond spin dynamics is still not properly understood. The remodeled Bloch-Schrödinger equation was incorporated into the Hamiltonian. The mechanism of the femtosecond dynamics was investigated under three quantum states. The spin relaxation mechanism operated in a single continuous time scale (&gt;70ps) which was in variance with known postulate. The transient reflectivity was measured to be within an angular range of 18.6o to 90.0o at a pulse range of 1MHz to 6.5 MHz. Beyond the pulse intensity of -2.5, the system elapsed into a quasi-equilibrium state which explains the independence of the magnetic moment on the pulse intensity. Different possibilities of the femtosecond spin dynamics were worked out for future study.</p> Moses E. Emetere, Bijan Nikouravan Copyright (c) 2014 Fundamental Journals https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/‎ https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/167 Tue, 30 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Features of the Night-Time F-Region Currents Over Equatorial Africa (August, 2001) https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/166 <p>In this paper, we present the features of the equatorial F-region current systems over equatorial Africa during nighttime on 05thAugust, 2001 observed at midnight. The observations have inferred from in situ CHAMP satellite measurements of the vector magnetic field. The magnitudes of the current along all the three magnetic field components of the Earth’s magnetic field varied considerably. The Bx-component recorded a diamagnetic effect of about 8nT, By-component recorded a current density of 5mA/m, and Bz-component reached a value of 3mA/m. The F-region dynamo, gravity dynamo and plasma-pressure gradients are the possible mechanisms for the occurrence of these currents. The signatures confined to the equatorial region bounded by the Appleton anomaly.</p> Copyright (c) 2014 Fundamental Journals https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/‎ https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/166 Tue, 30 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Mass-wavelength equivalence relation in curved space-time continuum of a black hole and transformation of a black hole to a pseudo white hole. https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/165 <p>Black holes create and emit particles thereby evaporating and losing their mass slowly with time . As it loses its mass, the wavelength of the emitted particles decreases and the energy of the black hole radiation increases. The wavelength of Hawking radiation is related to the curvature of space-time continuum near the event horizon by the equation,</p> <p>λ<sub>HR</sub> = {4πM<sub>B</sub> c<sup>2</sup> (G<sub>uv</sub> +Λg<sub>uv</sub> )}/(3T<sub>uv</sub> )</p> <p>&nbsp;where, λ<sub>HR</sub>&nbsp;is the wavelength of the radiation emitted. As the mass of the black hole tends towards zero the wavelength also decreases proportionally and soon the energy carried away from the black hole by Hawking radiation becomes immense. This energy can be thought to be coming from vacuum energy as the black hole converts virtual particle to real ones as seen by an inertial observer far away from the event horizon. This outwards pressure prevents any object to fall beyond the event horizon and it starts behaving as a white hole instead. This is a pseudo white hole as it has positive curvature unlike the white hole predicted by Einstein field equations that has negative curvature.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Deepanshu Chouhan Copyright (c) https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/165 On Maxwell’s Reversed Laws as Root of Magnetic Monopoles in Dark Matter https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/164 <p>We propose the magnetic sterile neutrino as a possible candidate for dark matter. We bring the idea that dark matter would be made up of substances originating from black holes, in particular sterile neutrinos associated with a magnetic charge. These would not be sensitive only to the gravitational force. First, we conjectured that when baryonic matter crosses the black holes event horizon, Maxwell's laws are reversed, the electric charge turns into a magnetic charge<span style="text-decoration: line-through;">.</span> Sterile magnetic neutrinos and antineutrinos would be created and emitted, true magnetic monopoles. Second, we discuss dark matter consisting of sterile magnetic neutrinos, the cosmic microwave background, mini primordial black holes, and the formation of intermediate mass black holes linked to the formation of galaxies. Third, we review different mechanisms of how sterile magnetic neutrino could have escaped from the black hole. Fourth, we investigate the possibility that ordinary neutrinos could be produced by the weak interaction if sterile magnetic dark matter neutrinos interact with active ordinary matter neutrinos. Fifth, after examining equations of possible production of gamma rays from the annihilation of neutrinos-antineutrinos, we propose the “anapole”, which would be weakly sensitive to electromagnetic forces. Before concluding, we underline the relation between the distribution of the magnetic fields coming from baryonic matter and that from dark matter, and we highlight the gamma ray glows in the dark that can be attributed to the annihilation of dark matter with itself.</p> Russell Bagdoo Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/‎ https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/164 Sun, 18 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Mechanism of Energy Conversion Process https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/162 <p>A closed system has different quantized level of Energy states. It can absorb energy depending on surrounding and its available quantized energy level. On absorption of energy the mass of the system increases as per Einstein’s mass energy relationship that is energy absorbed into system gets converted into mass. The system at higher energy state, having higher mass tends to come into available lower energy state depending on its surrounding, thereby releasing its energy in another form. During releasing energy mass of the closed system gets reduced. Depending on the frequency of absorbed energy and emitted energy, energy of one form gets converted into another form.</p> Copyright (c) https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/162 QCD QED Potentials, Quark Confinement https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/161 <p>One of the enduring puzzles in high energy particle physics is why quarks do not exist independently ‎despite their existence inside the hadron as quarks have never been found in isolation. This problem may ‎be solved by formulating a QCD potential for the entire range of interaction distances of the quarks. The ‎mystery could be related to the fundamental origin of the mass of elementary particles despite the success ‎of the quantum field theories to the highest level of accuracy. The renormalization program is an essential ‎part of the calculation of the scattering amplitudes, where the infinities of the calculated masses of the ‎elementary particles are subtracted for the progressive calculation of the higher-order perturbative terms. ‎The mathematical structure of the mass term from quantum field theories expressed in the form of infinities ‎suggests that there may exist a finite dynamical mass in the limit when the input mass parameter ‎approaches zero. The Lagrangian recovers symmetry at the same time as the input mass becomes zero, ‎whereas the self-energy diagrams acquire a finite dynamical mass in the 4-dimensional space when the ‎dimensional regularization method of renormalization is utilized. We report a new finding that using the ‎mathematical expression of the self-energy(mass) for photons and gluons calculated from this method, the ‎complex form of the QCD and QED interaction potentials can be obtained by replacing the fixed ‎interaction mediating particle’s mass and coupling constants in Yukawa potential with the scale-‎dependent running coupling constant and the corresponding dynamical mass. The derived QCD QED ‎potentials predict the behavior of the related elementary particles exactly as verified by experimental ‎observation.‎</p> Eue Jin Jeong Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/‎ https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/161 Sun, 18 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Re-examination of Energy Conservation Principle ‎in ‎Charged Capacitors and the Reported ‎Anomalous Energy ‎Devices https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/160 <p>Energy conservation is one of the most fundamental and well-established principles of physics. E. Noether ‎extended the energy conservation principle to the quantum field theoretical domain in empty space by ‎relating the time-translation invariance of the universe with energy conservation. While this is the case in ‎an open empty space, it seems that the local space enclosed by conducting metallic plates has an ‎unexpected property, suggesting that the energy conservation principle may not necessarily apply to ‎localized bound systems of capacitors in electrodynamics. This point of view was raised by noting that the ‎spherical capacitor has calculable electrostatic self-potential energy in both the inner and outer shells, ‎which is not considered in the conventional consideration of the total energy stored in the capacitors. It ‎seems that the concept of moving charges one by one into the capacitor plates has helped bypass the ‎necessary steps to account for the additional repulsive self-potential energy that accumulates ‎simultaneously in both capacitor plates in the process of charging the capacitor. We present itemized ‎details of the repulsive potential energy stored in the capacitors and discuss its physical reality in relation to ‎the anomalous energy devices reported in the past.‎</p> Eue Jin Jeong Copyright (c) 2022 Fundamental Journals https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/‎ https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/160 Mon, 06 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000