International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps <p><a title=" International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science" href="https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/index" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong><img src="https://www.fundamentaljournals.org/public/site/images/admin/96749653-3310442022301960-7899194878892965888-o.png" alt="" width="1499" height="351" /></strong></a></p> <p><strong>ISSN: 2231-8186 </strong><br /><strong>DOI: 10.14331/ijfps</strong><br /><strong>Aims and Scope</strong><br />International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences (IJFPS) or (Int. J. Fundam. Phys. Sci) is an International Open Access Journal with OJS (Open Journal Systems) publishing quarterly and covering all parts of Sciences in Mathematics, Theoretical &amp; Experimental Physics, Astronomy, Astrophysics, Chemistry, Geology, Computer Sciences, Civil, GIS, IT and etc. </p> <p><a title="Worldcat" href="https://www.worldcat.org/search?q=International+Journal+of+Fundamental+Physical+Sciences+%28IJFPS%29&amp;fq=+%28x0%3Aartchap-+OR+%28x0%3Ajrnl+x4%3Adigital%29+OR+%28x0%3Aarchv+x4%3Adigital%29%29&amp;dblist=638&amp;se=&amp;sd=&amp;fc=yr:_25&amp;qt=show_more_yr%3A&amp;cookie" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Worldcat</a></p> en-US info@fundamentaljournals.org (Ko. Nakajima (中島)) info@fundamentaljournals.org (A. Balali) Mon, 06 Jun 2022 09:08:55 +0000 OJS 3.2.1.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 A Mechanism of Energy Conversion Process https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/162 <p>A closed system has different quantized level of Energy states. It can absorb energy depending on surrounding and its available quantized energy level. On absorption of energy the mass of the system increases as per Einstein’s mass energy relationship that is energy absorbed into system gets converted into mass. The system at higher energy state, having higher mass tends to come into available lower energy state depending on its surrounding, thereby releasing its energy in another form. During releasing energy mass of the closed system gets reduced. Depending on the frequency of absorbed energy and emitted energy, energy of one form gets converted into another form.</p> Goutam Kumar Kundu, Dr Ananya Kundu, Aditya Kundu Copyright (c) https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/162 QCD QED Potentials, Quark Confinement https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/161 <p class="Standard"><span style="color: #222222;">One of the enduring puzzles in high energy particle physics is why quarks do not exist independently despite their existence inside the hadron as quarks have never been found in isolation. This problem may be solved by formulating a QCD potential for the entire range of interaction distances of the quarks. The mystery could be related to the fundamental origin of the mass of <span style="background: white;">elementary particles </span>despite <span style="background: white;">the success of the </span>quantum field theories to the highest level of accuracy<span style="background: white;">. </span>The <span style="background: white;">renormalization program is an essential part of the calculation of the scattering amplitudes</span>, where the infinities of the calculated <span style="background: white;">masses of the elementary particles are subtracted for the progressive calculation of the higher-order perturbative terms. The mathematical structure of the mass term from quantum field theories expressed in the form of infinities suggests that there may exist</span></span> a finite dynamical mass in the limit when the input mass parameter approaches zero. The Lagrangian recovers symmetry at the same time as the input mass becomes zero, whereas the self-energy diagrams acquire a finite dynamical mass in the 4-dimensional space when the dimensional regularization method of renormalization is utilized. We report a new finding that using the mathematical expression of the self-energy(mass) for photons and gluons calculated from this method, the complex form of the QCD and QED interaction potentials can be obtained by replacing the fixed interaction mediating particle’s mass and coupling constants in Yukawa potential with the scale-dependent running coupling constant and the corresponding dynamical mass. The derived QCD QED potentials predict the behavior of the related elementary particles exactly as verified by experimental observation.</p> Eue-Jin Jeong Copyright (c) https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/161 Re-examination of Energy Conservation Principle ‎in ‎Charged Capacitors and the Reported ‎Anomalous Energy ‎Devices https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/160 <p>Energy conservation is one of the most fundamental and well-established principles of physics. E. Noether ‎extended the energy conservation principle to the quantum field theoretical domain in empty space by ‎relating the time-translation invariance of the universe with energy conservation. While this is the case in ‎an open empty space, it seems that the local space enclosed by conducting metallic plates has an ‎unexpected property, suggesting that the energy conservation principle may not necessarily apply to ‎localized bound systems of capacitors in electrodynamics. This point of view was raised by noting that the ‎spherical capacitor has calculable electrostatic self-potential energy in both the inner and outer shells, ‎which is not considered in the conventional consideration of the total energy stored in the capacitors. It ‎seems that the concept of moving charges one by one into the capacitor plates has helped bypass the ‎necessary steps to account for the additional repulsive self-potential energy that accumulates ‎simultaneously in both capacitor plates in the process of charging the capacitor. We present itemized ‎details of the repulsive potential energy stored in the capacitors and discuss its physical reality in relation to ‎the anomalous energy devices reported in the past.‎</p> Eue Jin Jeong Copyright (c) 2022 Fundamental Journals https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/‎ https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/160 Mon, 06 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Reality of Imaginary Numbers https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/159 <p>As we know, imaginary numbers are square roots of a negative numbers. In this paper, imaginary numbers will be further defined.‎ Every number has a sign to it. A number can either be a positive or a negative, however zero is ‎neither positive nor negative. The number zero is what can be referred to as a neutral number since it does not have any plus or minus signs. In reality, the ‎sign of zero is neutral which is both positive and negative at the same time . The square root of a positive one is both a positive and a negative one . In this paper a new view and discussion has been done for different mathematical operators such as addition, subtraction, ‎multiplication and ‎division and some more idea which has never been considered earlier, called Pelletier Postulate.</p> Keith J. Pelletier‎ Copyright (c) 2022 Fundamental Journals https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/159 Mon, 06 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Measurement of the Magnetic Monopole Charge, the Missing Link in Quantum Mechanics, Aether and the Dark Energy https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/158 <p style="line-height: 100%; orphans: 2; widows: 2; margin-bottom: 0in;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;">Charge conservation in the theory of elementary particle physics is one of the best-established principles in physics. As such, if there are magnetic monopoles in the universe, magnetic charge will most likely be a conserved quantity like electric charges. If neutrinos are magnetic monopoles, as physicists have reported the possibility, the Earth should show signs of having magnetic monopole charge on a macroscopic scale since neutrons must also have magnetic monopole charge if general charge conservation principle is valid. To test this hypothesis, experiments were performed to detect the collective effect of magnetic monopole charge of neutrons on the earth's equator using two balanced high strength neodymium rod magnets. We were able to identify non-zero magnetic monopole charge of the individual neutrons from the experiments. The presence of individual <span style="color: #000000;"><span style="background: #ffffff;">magnetic monopole charges in the universe prompted proposition of the new </span></span>symmetric form of Maxwell's equations. Based on the theoretical investigation of the new Maxwell's equations, we conclude that magnetic monopole neutrinos are the cause of the origin of quantum mechanical uncertainty, dark energy and the medium for electromagnetic wave propagation in space.</span></p> Eue-Jin Jeong, Dennis Edmondson Copyright (c) 2022 Fundamental Journals https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/‎ https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/158 Thu, 16 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Re-examination of Energy Conservation Principle in Charged Capacitors and the Reported Anomalous Energy Devices https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/157 <p>Energy conservation is one of the most fundamental and well-established principles of physics. E. Noether ‎extended the energy conservation principle to the quantum field theoretical domain in empty space by ‎relating the time-translation invariance of the universe with energy conservation. While this is the case in ‎an open empty space, it seems that the local space enclosed by conducting metallic plates has an ‎unexpected property, suggesting that the energy conservation principle may not necessarily apply to ‎localized bound systems of capacitors in electrodynamics. This point of view was raised by noting that the ‎spherical capacitor has calculable electrostatic self-potential energy in both the inner and outer shells, ‎which is not considered in the conventional consideration of the total energy stored in the capacitors. It ‎seems that the concept of moving charges one by one into the capacitor plates has helped bypass the ‎necessary steps to account for the additional repulsive self-potential energy that accumulates ‎simultaneously in both capacitor plates in the process of charging the capacitor. We present itemized ‎details of the repulsive potential energy stored in the capacitors and discuss its physical reality in relation to ‎the anomalous energy devices reported in the past.‎</p> Eue-Jin Jeong Copyright (c) https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/157 Mon, 06 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Reality of Imaginary Numbers https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/156 <p>As we know, imaginary numbers are square roots of a negative numbers. In this paper, imaginary numbers will be further defined.‎ Every number has a sign to it. A number can either be a positive or a negative, however zero is ‎neither positive nor negative. The number zero is what can be referred to as a neutral number since it does not have any plus or minus signs. In reality, the ‎sign of zero is neutral which is both positive and negative at the same time . The square root of a positive one is both a positive and a negative one . In this paper a new view and discussion has been done for different mathematical operators such as addition, subtraction, ‎multiplication and ‎division and some more idea which has never been considered earlier, called Pelletier Postulate.</p> Keith Pelletier Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/156 Mon, 06 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The simplest correction to Hubbell’s law and its theoretical implications https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/155 <p>This paper introduces a simple change to the Hubbell’s equation on distance to red shift. It is shown that the prediction of the equation is compatible with data, obtained from distance measurements, which are independent of red shift. Having shown it’s compatibility with these observations, the paper then introduces the theoretical basis for the equation. The theoretical basis relies on a single assumption that in the expansion of the universe, the ratio d(space)/d(time) = Constant = speed of light. It is shown that the equations of special relativity follow directly from this 1 assumption.</p> Frank De Silva Copyright (c) https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/155 The perilousness of illusory thoughts on scientific researches https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/154 <p>This paper deliberates the effectiveness of considering some real-life illusionary events and thought experiments as notable evidence of scientific researches based on the discussion of Hamdoon A. Khan about the types of thoughts. With the support of mathematical proves, we can highlight the limits and boundaries of the use of illusionary events and thoughts; prove that the illusory events and thoughts cannot be used as evidence to substantiate the attributes of the reality behind those illusions.</p> Hamdoon A. Khan Copyright (c) https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/154 The Eventuality of Equating Energy and Mass - Laws and Theories https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/153 <p style="text-align: justify;">Einstein's famous equation, , revolutionized the theory of physics and introduced new perspectives to the study of energy and mass. However, a close consideration of its principles raises essential concerns on the equitability of mass and energy as well as other phenomena like the speed of light. The unavoidable scientific claim of this paper is that the total energy of matter depends on its internal and external energies, which are accounted for by kinetic and potential energies. In the current work, thought experiments reveal important additions to this idea regarding the apparent effects of external energy on the nature of matter and particles. This paper employs detailed thought experiments and theoretical discussions to identify and address several notable inconsistencies related to the energy and mass equation based on previous works in physics. The relative external energy of an object will be influenced by the position of the observer. The outcomes of the experiments presented herein also provide key insights into the constancy of the internal energy of all matter and particles. Generally, this paper provides an important basis for analyzing the theory underlying the physics of energy and mass, addressing questionable ideas that are common but poorly substantiated and providing a new understanding of the nature of mass and energy that lays the foundations for further research in this area by projecting the difference between them.</p> Hamdoon A. Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/153 Sat, 04 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Ultimate Sophistication of Special Theory of Relativity https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/152 <p>With the consideration of the light which carries the photon particles, the Lorentz transformation was constructed with an impressive mathematical approach. But the generalization of that equation for all the velocities of the universe is direct enforcement on other things not to travel faster than light. It has created serious issues in every scientific research that was done in the last century based on the special theory of relativity. This paper replaces the velocity of light with some other velocities and shows us the possible consequences and highlights the issues of special relativity. If I travel through my past or future and was able to see another me there, who would be the real Hamdoon I or the one I see there in the past or future! If the real one is only me, the one I saw, is not me, so, I could not travel through my or someone else's past or future. Therefore, no one can travel through time. If both of us are the same, can the key of personal identity be duplicated or be separated into two or more parts? These are some of the fundamental philosophical arguments that annihilate the concept of time travel which is one of the sequels of special relativity.</p> Hamdoon A. Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/152 Thu, 26 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Ultimate Sophistication of Special Theory of Relativity https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/151 <p>With the consideration of the light which carries the photon particles, the Lorentz transformation was constructed with an impressive mathematical approach. But the generalization of that equation for all the velocities of the universe is direct enforcement on other things not to travel faster than light. It has created serious issues in every scientific research that was done in the last century based on the special theory of relativity. This paper replaces the velocity of light with some other velocities and shows us the possible consequences and highlights the issues of special relativity. If I travel through my past or future and was able to see another me there, who would be the real Hamdoon I or the one I see there in the past or future! If the real one is only me, the one I saw, is not me, so, I could not travel through my or someone else's past or future. Therefore, no one can travel through time. If both of us are the same, can the key of personal identity be duplicated or be separated into two or more parts? These are some of the fundamental philosophical arguments that annihilate the concept of time travel which is one of the sequels of special relativity.</p> Hamdoon A. Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/151 Fri, 27 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Eventuality of Equating Energy and Mass - Laws and Theories https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/150 <p>Einstein's famous equation, E = mc<sup>2</sup>, revolutionized the theory of physics and introduced new perspectives to the study of energy and mass. However, a close consideration of its principles raises essential concerns on the equitability of mass and energy as well as other phenomena like the speed of light. The unavoidable scientific claim of this paper is that the total energy of matter depends on its internal and external energies, which are accounted for by kinetic and potential energies. In the current work, thought experiments reveal important additions to this idea regarding the apparent effects of external energy on the nature of matter and particles. This paper employs detailed thought experiments and theoretical discussions to identify and address several notable inconsistencies related to the energy and mass equation based on previous works in physics. The relative external energy of an object will be influenced by the position of the observer. The outcomes of the experiments presented herein also provide key insights into the constancy of the internal energy of all matter and particles. Generally, this paper provides an important basis for analyzing the theory underlying the physics of energy and mass, addressing questionable ideas that are common but poorly substantiated and providing a new understanding of the nature of mass and energy that lays the foundations for further research in this area by projecting the difference between them.</p> Hamdoon A. Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/150 Sun, 05 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Monitoring DSI and Lancaster Indices for Study Dust and Sand Storm In Meteorological Mehrabad Station of Tehran https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/149 <p style="text-align: justify;">The first climatic factors affecting the phenomenon of dust and fine dust are collected, reconstructed, extended and completed in the form of DSI (Dust Storm Index) and Lancaster in Mehrabad meteorological station of Tehran was studied and analyzed. The results showed that in Mehrabad meteorological station in terms of temperature in 1992 the lowest value and in 1998, 2001, 2017 the highest value and in terms of humidity in 2017 the lowest amount of humidity and in 2000 the highest amount of humidity and in terms of rainfall in the year 2013 the lowest amount of precipitation and in 2019 the highest amount of precipitation and in terms of evaporation in 2009 the lowest amount of evaporation and in 1391 the highest amount of evaporation and finally in terms of number of dust days in 1998 the lowest number of days and in 2009 the highest number of days Dust has been recorded. Mehrabad station of Tehran in years showed DSI index, more than one number and Lancaster index, more than fifty number in most of the mentioned years, the values of temperature and evaporation are high and the values of precipitation and humidity are relatively low, which shows the direct relationship between the dust storm index (DSI index) and mobility index of sand dunes (Lancaster index) is almost too high and above the number It is noteworthy that in most of the mentioned years, Meteorological factors and data have been at Mehrabad station in Tehran.</p> Rahman Sharifi, Mohammad Khosroshahi, Mehdi Sadeghipourmarvi Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/149 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The ultimate sophistication of special theory of relativity https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/148 <p>With the consideration of the light which carries the photon particles, the Lorentz transformation was constructed with an impressive mathematical approach. But the generalization of that equation for all the velocities of the universe is direct enforcement on other things not to travel faster than light. It has created serious issues in every scientific research that was done in the last century based on the special theory of relativity. This paper replaces the velocity of light with some other velocities and shows us the possible consequences and highlights the issues of special relativity. If I travel through my past or future and was able to see another me there, who would be the real Hamdoon; I or the one I see there in the past or future! If the real one is only me, the one I saw, is not me, so, I could not travel through my or someone else's past or future. Therefore, no one can travel through time. If both of us are the same, can the key of personal identity be duplicated or be separated into two or more parts? These are some of the fundamental philosophical arguments that annihilate the concept of time travel which is one of the sequels of special relativity.</p> Hamdoon A. Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/148 Monitoring DSI and LANCASTER Indices for Study Dust & Sand Storm in Meteorological Mehrabad Station of Tehran. https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/146 Abstract The first climatic factors affecting the phenomenon of dust and fine dust are collected, reconstructed, extended and completed in the form of DSI and Lancaster in Mehrabad meteorological station of Tehran was studied and analyzed. The results showed that in Mehrabad meteorological station in terms of temperature in 1371 the lowest value and in 1377, 1380, 1396 the highest value and in terms of humidity in 1396 the lowest amount of humidity and in 1379 the highest amount of humidity and in terms of rainfall in the year 1392 the lowest amount of precipitation and in 1398 the highest amount of precipitation and in terms of evaporation in 1388 the lowest amount of evaporation and in 1391 the highest amount of evaporation and finally in terms of number of dust days in 1377 the lowest number of days and in 1388 the highest number of days Dust has been recorded. Mehrabad station of Tehran in years showed DSI index, more than one number and Lancaster index, more than fifty number in most of the mentioned years, the values of temperature and evaporation are high and the values of precipitation and humidity are relatively low, which shows the direct relationship between the dust storm index (DSI index) and mobility index of sand dunes (Lancaster index) is almost too high and above the number It is noteworthy that in most of the mentioned years, Meteorological factors and data have been at Mehrabad station in Tehran. Rahman Sharifi, Mohammad Khosroshahi, Mehdi Sadeghipourmarvi Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/146 Sun, 11 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Estimating Physical Properties of Confirmed Exoplanets: I. Calculation of essential planetary properties-Possible M-R cataloging of exoplanets https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/145 <p>The discovery of extrasolar planets outside our solar system and around other stars is now well underway. In the presented paper, calculations of some physical properties for confirmed exoplanets have been done. We have estimated physical properties such as the semi-major axis for potentially habitable exoplanets, the mass of planets by applying Kepler's third law around the mass of solar, Jupiter, and Earth-mass, stellar luminosity, habitability zone for the inner center and outer regions, radial velocity amplitude, planetary equilibrium temperature (PET) or effective radiation emission temperature and planet density. The mass-radius (MR) relationship of planets was investigated for potentially habitable exoplanets of three different groups of extrasolar planets: Subterran (Mars-size), Terran (Earth-size), and Superterran (Super-Earths or Mini-Neptunes); introduced in PHL, and found well coefficient values for each group. The minimum and maximum values for the mass and radius of exoplanets have been selected from 0.1&lt; M &lt; 10<em> M</em><sub>⊕</sub> and 0.4 &lt; <em>R</em> &lt; 2.5 R<sub>⊕</sub> . The same MR relationship has also estimated the same properties for a larger number of confirmed exoplanets with a mass and radius of 0.1&lt; M &lt;100 M<sub>⊕</sub> and 0.4&lt; <em>R</em> &lt; 15 R<sub>⊕</sub> , respectively, resulting their classification within 7 groups of mass and radius, with good coefficient values for each group. This is a new, possible cataloging that may need more effort for concluding a better understanding of the properties and varieties of the exoplanets.</p> Bijan Nikouravan Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/145 Sun, 02 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 On The Schottky Barrier Height Lowering Effect of Ti3SiC2 in Ohmic Contacts to P-Type 4H-SiC https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/141 <p>In this paper, an experimental investigation into titanium (Ti) / aluminium (Al)-based ohmic contacts to p-type 4H-silicon carbide (SiC) has been presented. Electrical characterisation of the fabricated contacts showed that metal structures with an initial Ti layer yielded the lowest specific contact resistance (ρ<sub>c</sub>), with a mean value of 3.7×10<sup>-5</sup> Ω-cm<sup>2</sup> being achieved after annealing in argon (Ar) at 1000°C for 2 minutes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis illustrated the epitaxial relationship between the 4H-SiC and the as-deposited Ti layer, and, in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, showed that after annealing a ~5 nm thick layer of Ti<sub>3</sub>SiC<sub>2</sub> was present, epitaxially arranged with the 4H-SiC. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the presence of the Ti<sub>3</sub>SiC<sub>2</sub> metallic phase was more prevalent in the samples with Ti as the initial metal layer annealed at 1000°C, which corresponded with lower specific contact resistance. Fitting of experimental data to a thermionic field emission (TFE) model allowed the Schottky barrier height to be extracted; it was found that the lowest Schottky barrier heights were more prevalent where the most intense Ti<sub>3</sub>SiC<sub>2</sub> phases were observed during XRD analysis.</p> C. A. Fisher, M. R. Jennings, Y. K. Sharma, A. Sanchez-Fuentes, D. Walker, P. M. Gammon, A. Pérez-Tomás, S. M. Thomas, S. E. Burrows, P. A. Mawby Copyright (c) 2014 Fundamental Journals https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/141 Tue, 30 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Giant Magnetoresistance and Oscillations In Interlayer Exchange Coupling In Co/Cu/Co Multi-Layers https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/140 <p>The oscillations in interlayer exchange coupling between ferromagnetic layers which are Separated by a nonmagnetic spacer layer, manifests n oscillatory magnetic properties which depend on the thickness of Copper interlayer. Using Molecular Beam Epitaxy system. We have made multilayer films with alternating cobalt and copper thin films. The preliminary results are reported on microstructure and magnetization properties. The conductance between first and third film depends on the relative orientation of magnetization between them. This optimizes to large magneto resistance changes called Giant Magneto-resistance effect.</p> Haji Shirinzadeh Copyright (c) 2014 Fundamental Journals https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/140 Tue, 30 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Calculation of The Deposited Energy and Stopping Range For The Proton, Deuteron and Carbon Beams In Laser Fusion by Fast Ignition https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/139 <p>The main goal of this paper is calculation of deposited energy and as a result evaluation of stopping range of the ionic beams of carbon, deuteron and proton. The deposited energy is the function of two parameters: (a) beam energy and (b) electron temperature. Also the stopping range depends on the temperature, ionic beam energy and density of fuel pellet. Our calculations show that with decreasing the stopping range of particle, the deposited energy is enhanced. In the same temperature and fuel density, carbon has less stopping range and more deposited energy but higher energy is needed to accelerate the beam , this causes carbon has less energy than others. However, deuteron has more stopping range and deposited energy in comparison with carbon also it has better beam gain in comparison with carbon. Stopping range and proton beam gain respect to the other fuels is placed in lower level , but the low threshold intensity to accelerate it, cause it obtain the high gain. The optimum beam gain of the proton is 150 while it is 75 for deuteron and 1 for carbon. The fuel geometry must be considered for more studies in order to increase the beam gain.</p> S.N. Hoseinimotlagh, M. Zareie Copyright (c) 2014 Fundamental Journals https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/139 Tue, 30 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000