The Relationship between Premenstrual (Syndrome) Disorders and Depression in Married and Single Women


  • Marzieh Mashal Pour Fard* Department of Psychology, Payame Noor University (PNU), Tehran. Iran
  • Masoumeh Besharati pour Department of Psychology, Payame Noor University (PNU), Tehran. Iran
  • Zahra Ebadi Department of Psychology, Payame Noor University (PNU), Tehran. Iran


Premenstrual (syndrome) Disorders, Depression, Married and single Women


The aims of the study were to examine the relationship between disorders (syndrome) premenstrual depression in married women and unmarried. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among married and single women. Participants included 200 married and single women, The data collection tools included demographic information questionnaire, daily symptom severity questionnaire, and a provisional diagnosis of premenstrual syndrome questionnaire and beck depression scale. The data analyzed by independent t test, Pearson correlation coefficients in SPSS. Twenty hundreds of the subjects (women and girls) met the criteria for PMD but the impairment of girls was severe. The symptom intensity and frequency of the subjects (women and girls) were different for PMDD. In these two groups, Psychiatric problems, including depression and anxiety, were high. In total, almost all of adolescents reported suffering from distressing premenstrual symptoms, and girls were severe in their symptom severity and characteristics in comparison with married women.


Download data is not yet available.


Bakhshani, N. M., Mousavi, M. N., & Khodabandeh, G. (2009). Prevalence and severity of premenstrual symptoms among Iranian female university students. J Pak Med Assoc, 59(4), 205-208.

Beck, A., Ward, C., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1962). Reliability of psychiatric diagnoses. A study of clinical judgements and ratings. Am J Psychiatry, 19, 351-356.

Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Carbin, M. G. (1988). Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clinical psychology review, 8(1), 77-100.

Cirillo, P. C., Passos, R. B. F., Bevilaqua, M. C. d. N., López, J. R. R. A., & Nardi, A. E. (2012). Bipolar disorder and Premenstrual Syndrome or Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder comorbidity: a systematic review. Revista brasileira de psiquiatria, 34(4), 467-479.

Ford, O., Lethaby, A., Roberts, H., & Mol, B. W. J. (2009). Progesterone for premenstrual syndrome. The Cochrane Library.

Freeman, E. W., Sammel, M. D., Lin, H., Rickels, K., & Sondheimer, S. J. (2011). Clinical subtypes of premenstrual syndrome and responses to sertraline treatment. Obstetrics and gynecology, 118(6), 1293.

Jamali S ; Karimi F. (2013). Comparison premenstrual syndrome in women, single and married Ayvanghrb city. Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 18(10).

Kupfer, D. J., Kuhl, E. A., & Regier, D. A. (2013). DSM-5the future arrived. Jama, 309(16), 1691-1692.

Lee, L., Chen, P., Lee, K., & Jagmohni, K. (2006). Menstruation among adolescent girls in Malaysia: a cross-sectional Malaysian school survey. Malaysian Family Physician, 1(2 & 3), 1.

Lete, I., Dueñas, J. L., Serrano, I., Doval, J. L., Martínez-Salmeán, J., Coll, C., . . . Arbat, A. (2011). Attitudes of Spanish women toward premenstrual symptoms, premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder: results of a nationwide survey. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 159(1), 115-118.

Moghadam, Z. B., Rezaei, E., Gholami, R. S., Kheirkhah, M., & Haghani, H. (2016). The effect of Valerian root extract on the severity of pre menstrual syndrome symptoms. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine.

Organization, W. H. (2010). World health statistics 2010: World Health Organization.

Payne, J. L., Roy, P. S., Murphy-Eberenz, K., Weismann, M. M., Swartz, K. L., McInnis, M. G., . . . Miller, E. B. (2007). Reproductive cycle-associated mood symptoms in women with major depression and bipolar disorder. Journal of affective disorders, 99(1), 221-229.

Rapkin, A. J., & Mikacich, J. A. (2013). Premenstrual dysphoric disorder and severe premenstrual syndrome in adolescents. Pediatric Drugs, 15(3), 191-202.

Sajjad, Z. B., Shakil, N., & Khan, Y. (2013). Study on frequency of Depression and factors affecting mood in women Of age 18-66 years residing in Karachi using Patient Health Questionnaire-9.

Seedhom, A. E., Mohammed, E. S., & Mahfouz, E. M. (2013). Life style factors associated with premenstrual syndrome among El-Minia University Students, Egypt. ISRN Public Health, 2013.

Tadakawa, M., Takeda, T., Monma, Y., Koga, S., & Yaegashi, N. (2016). The prevalence and risk factors of school absenteeism due to premenstrual disorders in Japanese high school students—a school-based cross-sectional study. BioPsychoSocial medicine, 10(1), 1.

Terzi, R., Terzi, H., & Kale, A. (2015). Evaluating the relation of premenstrual syndrome and primary dysmenorrhea in women diagnosed with fibromyalgia. Revista brasileira de reumatologia, 55(4), 334-339.

Yaacob, N., Nasir, N. M., Jalil, S. N., Ahmad, R., Rahim, N. A. R. A., Yusof, A. N. M., & Ghani, N. A. A. (2012). Parents or Caregiver's Perception on Menstrual Care in Individuals with Down Syndrome. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 36, 128-136.




How to Cite

Mashal Pour Fard*, M. ., Besharati pour, M. ., & Ebadi, Z. . (2016). The Relationship between Premenstrual (Syndrome) Disorders and Depression in Married and Single Women. International Journal of Fundamental Psychology and Social Science, 6(3), 33-37. Retrieved from



Views: 184 / Download: 102