Negative Matter as Unified Dark Matter and Dark ‎Energy: Simplest Model, Theory and Nine Tests

Dark Matter and Dark ‎Energy


  • Yi-Fang Chang Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091, China



Negative Matter‎, Repulsion‎, Dark Matter, Dark Energy, Inflation, Quantum, Ratio, Test, Field, Equation


Based on Dirac’s negative energy, we propose and study the negative matter. Bondi’s results are wrong. First, the negative matter can be the simplest model of unified dark matter and dark energy. Next, we discuss various possible theories of the negative matter: some field equations, similar electrodynamics, field equations with non-symmetry, etc. Third, the quantum theory of negative matter is researched. Matter surrounded by dark-negative matter corresponds to an infinitely deep potential trap in quantum mechanics and forms a base of the universal wave-particle duality and quantum mechanics. Fourth, we propose the mechanism of inflation as the origin of positive-negative matters created from nothing. Fifth, assume that dark matter is completely the negative matter, and we may calculate an evolutional ratio between total matter and usual matter from 1 of inflation and the radiation-dominated universe to 7.88 of the present matter-dominated universe. It agrees with the observed value 6.36~7. Sixth, we research the relativity of the negative matter and theory in Lobachevskian geometry. Seventh, we propose a judgment test of the negative matter as dark matter is opposite repulsive lensing and other eight possible tests. Eighty, we propose a figure on the unification of the four basic interactions in three-dimensional space, in which the “running” coupling constants of strong and weak interactions transform each other. The negative matter as a candidate of unification of dark matter and dark energy is not only the simplest, and may explain inflation and be calculated and tested.


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Author Biography

Yi-Fang Chang, Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091, China

Yi-Fang Chang. Professor, Department of Physics, Yunnan University, China. Research theoretical physics (including entropy change, dark matter, and dark energy, particles and interactions, special and general relativity, astrophysics, mathematical physics, etc.) and some cross-cutting sciences. So far, published 400 papers in Chinese and English. Editor of International Journal of Modern Theoretical Physics.


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How to Cite

Chang, Y.-F. (2020). Negative Matter as Unified Dark Matter and Dark ‎Energy: Simplest Model, Theory and Nine Tests: Dark Matter and Dark ‎Energy. International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences, 10(4), 40-54.